1. run a budget deficit 財政赤字
2. be riddled with corruption 貪腐氾濫成災
In 2009, Greece was running a budget deficit because there its government was riddled with corruption and had poor tax collection enforcement.
4. creative accounting 創造性會計，偽造帳目
5. take on debt 舉債 (就是國家、團體、個人憑藉信譽籌集社會資金所擔負的一種債務。舉債按償還期不同可分為短期借款和長期借款)
To make matters worse, Greece tried to mask its budget deficit for many years with some creative accounting since they had to adhere to European Central Bank regulations about how much debt a country could take on.
6. ballooning national debt 不斷上揚的國債
The cost of paying back the existing debt and any new debt that the Greek government had to borrow kept rising, a cycle that only increased Greece’s ballooning national debt.
7. credit rating was downgraded 信貸(信用)等級遭到降級
8. default on its debt 債務違約
9. rounds of austerity measures 財政緊縮措施
Greek’s credit rating was downgraded by the world’s rating agencies amid fears the government would default on its debt. The Greek government announced several rounds of austerity measures and slashed spending.
10. approve tough austerity measures 經核准的強硬緊縮措施
11. stage a strike against 發起對於…的對抗行動
In 2012, the Greek parliament approves a new package of tough austerity measures agreed with the EU for a massive euro bailout. Citizens and trade unions staged strikes against government austerity measures.
12. youth unemployment climbed to 60% 青年族失業率攀至60%
13. in a bid to save money 為了節省開銷
In 2013, unemployment rate was approximately 27, with the youth unemployment climbing to almost 60%. Many public programs were suspended without program in a bid to save money.
14. anti-austerity coalition 反撙節政策的組織
The anti-austerity leftist Syriza coalition wins European election with 26.6% of the vote in 2014. He becomes prime minister after winning parliamentary elections in January of next year.
15. default on a payment to the International Monetary Fund
16. referendum 公投
17. fall into arrears 到期未付款，欠款欠帳; 拖欠
18. Grexit 希臘退出歐元區
In late June, Greece became the first developed country to default on a payment to the International Monetary Fund, falling into arrears. Greek voters also decisively rejected the terms of a bailout deal offered by international lenders just a week later. Greek’s exit from the euro zone—more commonly known as Grexit– seemed more and more likely.
在六月底，希臘而成為了全世界第一個對國際貨幣基金組織拖欠繳款的已開發國家。在一個禮拜後，希臘的選民們也毅然決然地拒絕了所有國際債權人的任何紓困方 案。看來希臘的債務危機的處理是朝向希臘從歐元區的退出(Greek’s exit)或我們常說的Grexit方向來發展。
19. keep banks afloat 維持銀行的運轉
20. bailout deal 紓困案
Eurozone finance ministers have agreed to provide Greece emergency funding to keep its banks afloat after the Greek parliament passed tough austerity reforms Wednesday evening. Talks on a new bailout deal will begin in the upcoming weeks.