[詞彙區別] shall 與 should 的用法區別

[詞彙區別] shall 與 should 的用法區別
「shall should」的圖片搜尋結果


English explanation: http://tinyurl.com/muqo8qk

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Shall 和 should 既可以作為助動詞,也可以作為情境助動詞。

作為助動詞時,should 是 shall 的過去式 (但should也可用於現在式)。

-We shall/should finish the task together!
-At the time, we though that we should finish the task together.

用作情境助動詞時、 shall和should意義差別很大:

shall 用於表達允諾、告誡、威脅、命令、規定、必然性等、主要用於第二、三人稱。例如:

-The soldiers shall fulfill their duties to protect the people.
-You shall follow every rule in the book or face the consequences.
-He shall suffer for his crimes.
-The young king shall one day bring peace to his people.

*有時用於第一人稱,表示決心:
-I shall help you in any way that I can.
-I shall pay back my debt to you in any way that I can.

**在疑問句中用於徵求對方意見,主要用於第一人稱(在英語中,也用於第三人稱),其意為“要不要”、“…好嗎”

-Shall I get you a chair for you?
-What shall we do this evening?
-Shall we dance?

(In the U.S, we seldom use shall for anything other than polite questions.)

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而should 用於表達義務、建議、勸告、可能等。例如:

-We should learn from each other.
-You should give up smoking.
They should be there by now
The concert should be great fun.
The poems should be out in a month or so.

*should表示推斷時,語氣較肯定,通常是指非常可能的事(因為暗示有一定的事實依據或合乎常理),而may, might, could等表示推測時,則語氣較不肯定,尤其是might, could.

**should 用於徵求意見。主要用於第一人稱的疑問句形式:
-Should I open the window?
-Where should I meet you tonight?

(In the US, “shall" is considered to be more formal and polite.)

The New Fowler’s Modern English Usage edited by R.W. Burchfield. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. 1996.

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在法律英語中shall和should的用方法也有清楚地分別。shall表示強制性承擔法律所規定的義務。should在法律中往往作“if”解,只表示“如果”之意。

http://www.legaltranz.com/archives/553

will vs. shall: http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-modals_shall-will.htm

Sources:
http://www.differencebetween.net/language/words-language/difference-between-shall-and-should/
http://www.legaltranz.com/archives/553
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/auxiliary.htm
http://www.feeteckonline.com/content11_172_zh.html
http://qz.klxuexi.com/news-chuyi-1569.html

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