[文法區別] although, but, yet, even though, though, whereas, despite, in spite of 的區別

[文法與詞彙Q&A] although, but, yet, even though, though, whereas, despite, in spite of 的區別

「although」的圖片搜尋結果


A. 表示「雖然、儘管、但是」
1. although, but, yet

-In theory it seems like a good idea, but I don’t think it’ll work in practice.

-In theory it seems like a good idea, although I don’t think it’ll work in practice.
-Although it seems like a good idea, I don’t think it will work in practice.

※注意:although, but 兩者只能取其一,不能同時並用

Although it seems like a good idea, but I don’t think it will work in practice. (X)

※ 亦可用 still、anyway (依然、還是) 來加強but, although的語氣
I wasn’t feeling very well, but I still went to work.
I wasn’t feeling very well, but I went to work anyway.
I still went to work, although I wasn’t feeling very well.
Although I wasn’t feeling very well, I went to work anyway.

※亦可用yet來替代 but
It’s a simple yet very effective system.
In theory it seems like a good idea, (and) yet I don’t think it’ll work in practice.

Used as a conjunction, “yet" is similar in meaning to “but," but it has a stronger effect on the reader or listener. There is perhaps more of a surprise associated with the former statement. Note that you can put “and" in front of “yet" when it comes at the beginning of a clause, but of course this is not possible with “but," so you can write the following sentence:

“The cyclists were tired and hungry, all but exhausted, (and) yet they refused to give up in their attempt to finish the race."

Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/learnit/learnitv21.shtml

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2. though, even though
though 比較口語,意思與although同,但though 可以放在句尾(當副詞用)

-Though he has lived for years in London, he writes in French. (雖然)—連接詞

-He has lived for years in London. He writes in French, though. (不過、但是)–副詞

even though (即便、儘管)用法與although 同, 語氣更強烈
-Even though I wasn’t feeling very well, I still went to work.

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B. 表示「而、卻、反之」(對照比較之用)
-Indonesia has a lot of natural resources, whereas Singapore has none.

-Whereas Indonesia has a lot of natural resources, Singapore has none.

※ although 與 whereas 的比較

although 含有驚訝的意味 (通常是第二個子句所透漏的訊息令人意外) We had a reasonable year in Asia, although sales fell a little in Japan.

Although sales fell a little in Japan, we had a reasonable year in the rest of Asia.

Whereas 則強調對照,驚訝意味並不濃
We had a reasonable year in Asia, whereas sales in Europe were quite disappointing.

※ while 的用法
Inflation rose by 3% last year, while house prices went up 6%. (=whereas)
While there are still some issues to resolve, I think we should go ahead. (=although)

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C. despite/in spite of 的用法
despite 與 in spite of 意思同 although,但是用法不同;although 是連接詞,後面可接子句,despite/in spite of 為介係詞,後面必須接名詞或動名詞

Although sales increased, profits fell.
Despite the increase in sales, profits fell.

Although I was ill, I went to work.
In spite of my illness, I went to work.
Despite my illness, I went to work.
In spite of feeling ill, I went to work.
Despite feeling ill, I went to work.

Despite I felt ill, I went to work. (X)

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Sources:
elc.it.lhu.edu.tw/LHUIT/LHUITCourse/IT21030/…/連接用語(一).doc
http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/grammar-reference/spite-despite-although
http://www.oneworldofenglish.com/english_grammar_reference/although_even_though_despite_in_spite_of.htm
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nX8N9RiGCZg
http://www.wretch.cc/blog/e1c3396/11909723

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