[詞彙區別] for example,such as,like,namely 的區別

example


for example,such as,like,namely 的區別:

for example,such as 和 like都可用來舉例,但用法有所不同。

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1. for example 作 “例如” 講時,一般只以同類事物或人中的“一個”為例,作插入語,用逗號隔開,可置於句首、句中或句末。

-Van Gogh’s paintings are worth a fortune. For example, his “Portrait of Doctor Gachet" is worth over $140 million!!!

-There are many excellent students in my class. Dennis, for example, is a brilliant student.

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2. such as也作為“例如”講,用來列舉同類人或事物中的幾個例子。

-Some of the European languages come from Latin, such as French, Italian and Spanish.

-Boys such as John and James are very friendly.

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3. like 也常用來表示舉例,可與such as互換。*

-Many warm-blooded animals, like/such as the cat, the dog or the wolf, do not need to hibernate.

但such as用於舉例可以分開使用,此時不可與like互換。

-He has several such reference books as dictionaries and handbooks.

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4. 使用 such as 來舉例子,只能舉出其中的一部分,一般不能全部舉出。若全部舉出,要改用namely(意為“即”)。

He knows four languages, namely Chinese, English, Russian and French.

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5. namely 則是用來表達「也就是說,就是

Only one person was hired, namely John.

Three variables were not considered, namely age, gender, and height.

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*DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SUCH AS AND LIKE (this is sometimes tested on the GMAT)

Please note that to most writers, “like" can be used interchangeably with “such." However, some feel that there is a difference between the two and this is sometimes tested on the GMAT.

“Like" means “similar to", and “such as" means “for example."

1. Can you buy me some fruit like apples or watermelon?

This sentence implies that the speaker does NOT want apples or watermelon; instead, he prefers some fruit similar to apples and watermelon.

2. Can you buy me some fruit such as apples or watermelon?

This sentence implies that apples and watermelon are examples of the type of fruit the speaker wants.

3. I would like you to buy such fruit as apples and watermelon for me.

This is simply a variation — notice how such and as are separated.

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Sources:
http://gmat-grammar.blogspot.tw/2006/06/like-vs-such-as.html
http://oald8.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/dictionary/namely
http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/like-versus-such-as.aspx
http://www.grammarphobia.com/blog/2012/02/like-such-as.html
http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/148243372.html
http://bulo.hujiang.com/question/43009/
http://www.ecp.com.cn/cc/g2/nwwd/20080201141101.htm

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