[詞彙區別] on the contrary, in contrast, on the other hand 的用法區別
在學術英文寫作，常常會需要做兩個觀點的正反面比較，或是提出另外一種看法，有三個最常見的片語可供選擇：on the contrary，in contrast 與 on the other hand，但這三種片語容易混淆常常造成寫作者的困擾，以下老師提供每個片語的解釋和用法，給同學參考，希望對同學有幫助。
◆on the contrary: （恰恰相反、相反地）
Use “on the contrary” when you have just said or implied that something is not true and are going to say that the opposite is true.
When I first met him, I thought he was a modest and gentle person. On the contrary, he is arrogant and ruthless.
A: I hear you enjoy running.
B: On the contrary, I find it to be tiresome.
◆by contrast, in contrast (to/with): （對照之下、與……成對比）
Use “by contrast” or “in contrast (to/with)” to show that you are mentioning a very different situation from the one you have just mentioned.
“In contrast” and “by contrast” mean the same thing: the act of comparing in order to show differences. The difference lies in the way the words are used. “In contrast” is usually followed by “to” or “with” and requires a noun to follow it. “By contrast” is usually followed or preceded by the subject of the sentence.
In contrast 和 by contrast 意義相同，都是用來對比兩件事或兩個人之不同處。但他們的用法不盡相同。In contrast 通常會與 to 或 with 連用，用法如下:in contrast to/with+名詞。
In contrast to the diligent bee, the butterfly seems to fly around without a clear purpose.
In contrast with most local programs, the federal government’s plan looks beyond just economic growth.
Cats usually sleep in the day. Dogs, by contrast, never settle down.
◆on the other hand: （另一方面）
Use “on the one hand” to introduce the first of two contrasting points, facts, or ways of looking at something. It is always followed later by on the other hand or on the other.
The writing class is taking up too much of my time; on the other hand, I’m learning a lot about writing.
I hate working in a clothing store, but on the other hand, there are also some advantages.
總結來說，在寫文章的時候，如果你已經預設了立場，要表達與之前的說法相反或強調之前的說法是錯誤的，可以用 on the contrary。若要做客觀的觀點對比，不加入個人對錯想法，只是單純比較時就用 by contrast 或 in contrast (to/with)。而 on the other hand 則是說明一件事情的兩面，或是不同的看法，雖有部分人士認為此片語不夠正式，但在學術語料庫出現的頻率可是這三個裡面最高的。