[詞彙區別] thus, therefore, hence?

[詞彙區別] 同學們,在寫學術文章的時候是不是很難區分thus, therefore, hence?

 

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雖然這幾個字都是副詞,字義上也大致被認為是「所以」,可是用法卻有細膩的區別。

★★★★Thus★★★★

1. Thus 的意思是「以這樣的方式」或「藉由如此」。

“Thus” means “in this/that way.” It relates to “HOW” – the manner in which – how something happens or comes about.

E.g. The university has drastically lowered its tuition, thus (in this way) allowing many more people the chance of higher education.

2. Thus 另外一個意思是「因此」或「於是」。

“Thus” also means as a result of something just mentioned. It, when used as a conjunctive adverb, is similar in meaning to “therefore.”

E.g. It has been discovered that using scents can trigger the sensations of love, comfort, and happiness. Thus, the sense of smell can be used as strategy to invoke new responses in consumers.

3. Thus far 的意思則是「到目前為止 」或「迄今」。

E.g. He has invested $ 12 million thus far. He will most likely invest more in the future.

★★★★Therefore★★★★

1. Therefore的意思是「出於某個原因」、「因為某個因素」或「建立在某個基礎上」。

Therefore 前面的句子提供了證據支持某個結論,而該結論將出現在下一個含有 therefore的句子中。Therefore在數學證明中是常見的。

“Therefore” means “for this reason,” or “because of this or that” – it relates to deductive reasoning, it tells WHY this or that is so, or happened.

E.g. He was late and therefore (for this reason) missed the bus.

E.g. There are frequent rock slides in that area. Therefore, no one is allowed to enter.

★★★★Hence★★★★

1. Hence意思是「 因此」或「 導致」,字義是跟therefore相同,但用法不同。

We suspect that the agency is trying to hide something, hence the need for an independent inquiry.

在這邊hence後面並非連接子句,而是接名詞片語!

2. Hence 在正式(科學)的文章可以當轉折詞,意思仍然是「 因此」。

The cost of transport is a major expense for an industry. Hence(,) factory location is an important consideration.

這邊逗號在正式寫作常省略掉。

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這三個字都有共同點,所以同學自然在使用時容易混淆,而且大部分母語者也分不太清楚這三者間的差異。但是同學在學術寫作時還是必須選擇適當的詞彙,才能精準表達自己的想法及觀點。若用字上不夠明確,很容易誤導讀者而失去原先欲傳遞的訊息。

建議同學還是要分清楚這三字細微的區別才能更精準、有效、流暢地呈現文章的要點間的連貫。

詞彙區別:http://goo.gl/xnhtQg

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Sources:

https://painintheenglish.com/case/4452/

https://goo.gl/s5VRv7

https://www.ldoceonline.com/

https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/

https://corpus.byu.edu/coca/

https://jakubmarian.com/so-thus-therefore-and-hence-in-english/

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