VT Speaking Challenge 10: Asteroids, Comets, Meteors? What’s the difference?

Vocabulary Challenge 10: https://tw.voicetube.com/everyday/20190522

心智圖詞彙攻略: ericvocab.com 

Script:

When you wish upon a star —
當你向星星許願
Makes no difference who you are–
無論你是誰都一樣
Anything your heart desires
任何心中的願望
Will come to you
都將實現

VoiceTubers! Have you ever looked up the star and wonder what’s out there?

Well, hopefully, when you look up, you will see a shooting star, one that is not coming toward you. Today, we’re going to learn about a topic that is often on academic English assessments. We are going to talk about Asteroids, Comets & Meteors!

We have a lot of materials to cover today so get your pencils ready to take notes! OK, let’s first focus on our sentence of the day.

First, let’s focus on our Sentence of the Day.


When a meteoroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere, it burns up and causes friction that results in a light phenomenon.

當一顆隕石進入地球的大氣層,它會燃燒殆盡並導致磨擦產生亮光的現象。


When a meteoroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere, it burns up and causes friction that results in a light phenomenon.

Faster

When a meteoroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere, it burns up and causes friction that results in a light phenomenon.


What are the possible thought groups?

When a meteoroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere, (1)

it burns up (2)

and causes friction (3)

that results in a light phenomenon.(4)

What about the sentence stress? You could say:

When a meteoroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere, it burns up and causes friction that results in a light phenomenon.

These are the key points.


How about the intonation?

When a meteoroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere, (up)

it burns up (up)

and causes friction (down)

that results in a light phenomenon. (down)


So according to the Cambridge English dictionary, intonation describes how the voice rises and falls in speech. The three main patterns of intonation in English are: falling intonation, rising intonation and fall-rise intonation.

Falling intonation describes how the voice falls on the final stressed syllable of a phrase or a group of words. A falling intonation is very common in wh-questions.

Where’s the nearest post-office?

What time does the film finish?

We also use falling intonation when we say something definite, or when we want to be very clear about something:

We also use falling intonation when we say something definite, or when we want to be very clear about something:

I think we are completely lost.

OK, here’s the magazine you wanted.

———————————————–

Rising intonation

Rising intonation describes how the voice rises at the end of a sentence. Rising intonation is common in yes-no questions:

I hear the Health Centre is expanding. So, is that the new doctor?

Are you thirsty?

———————————————–

Fall-rise intonation

Fall-rise intonation describes how the voice falls and then rises. We use fall-rise intonation at the end of statements when we want to say that we are not sure, or when we may have more to add:

I don’t support any football team at the moment. (but I may change my mind in future).

It rained every day in the first week. (but things improved after that).

We use fall-rise intonation with questions, especially when we request information or invite somebody to do or to have something. The intonation pattern makes the questions sound more polite:

Is this your camera?

Would you like another coffee?

Intonation:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IdaKEvp27oo


As for grammar,

When a meteoroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere, (up)

it burns up (up)

and causes friction (down)

that results in a light phenomenon. (down)

So we use the conjunction “when” here to

refer to a future situation or condition that we are certain of, whereas we use if to introduce a possible or unreal situation.


Zero Conditional

for certainty

If you heat ice, it melts.

We use the so-called zero conditional when the result of the condition is always true, like a scientific fact.

Take some ice. Put it in a saucepan. Heat the saucepan. What happens? The ice melts (it becomes water). You would be surprised if it did not.

if

condition

result

Present Simple

Present Simple

If

you heat ice,

it melts.

Notice that we are thinking about a result that is always true for this condition. The result of the condition is an absolute certainty. We are not thinking about the future or the past, or even the present. We are thinking about a simple fact. We use the Present Simple tense to talk about the condition. We also use the Present Simple tense to talk about the result. The important thing about the zero conditional is that the condition always has the same result.

Look at these example sentences:

We often use when instead of if, for example: When I get up late, I miss my bus.

零條件句是用來陳述實際的情況,一般論及真理,好比科學現象。在這些句子中,時間是指現在或任何時候,而情況是實際且可能的

https://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-conditional-zero.htm

Also, we mentioned conjunctions, but we have not talked about conjunctive adverbs and other transitional phrases (連結副詞和轉折)!


OK, you should be used to it by now if you listen to my academic vocabulary challenge.

Every time, we can go over thought groups, sentence stress, and intonation, and even a grammar point. Once again,  please note that I usually speak a little slower this part because I hope you would take notes. We are going over learning strategies here and not just practicing listening.


OK, let’s take a break!

So, a student asked me what is the difference between

comets, asteroids, meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites

So according to

General size [一般大小比較]: asteroid [小行星] > comet [彗星] > meteoroid [流星體] > meteor/shooting star [流星] > meteorite [隕石]

Usually, an asteroid is always denser than a comet but may not always be bigger.

OK, are you ready for the definition?


Asteroids (小行星) are small solar bodies orbiting the Sun. Made of rock and metal, they can also contain organic compounds. Asteroids are similar to comets but do not have a visible fuzzy tail like comets do. 一類小天體,個體較小(最大的直徑也只有數百千米),很多形狀不規則。成分不一,有的主要是矽酸鹽,有的主要是金屬,還有少數含相當數量的碳,不擁有彗尾。

A comet (彗星) is a relatively small solar system body that orbits the Sun. When close enough to the Sun they display a visible COMA (a fuzzy outline due to solar radiation) and sometimes a tail. 太陽系中的一類小天體,通常繞太陽運行。主要由塵埃和冰,靠近太陽時溫度上升,噴出塵埃和氣體,在太陽光壓的作用下延展至運行的相反方向,形成彗發和彗尾。

A meteoroid (流星體) is a small rock or particle of debris in our solar system. They range in size from dust to around 10 meters in diameter. 其實就是太空中的塵埃顆粒和碎石,進入大氣層後因摩擦產生高溫發光,就是流星。

A meteoroid (流星) becomes a meteor or “shooting star" when it starts to fall through Earth’s atmosphere. It heats up by friction with air molecules, emitting light along its trail to form a fireball. 流星體進入大氣層後,與大氣摩擦發熱發光產生的現象。

A meteor (隕石) that survives falling through the Earth’s atmosphere and colliding with the Earth’s surface is known as a meteorite. 指的是從太空中掉入地球的鐵或岩石. 它在進入地球的大氣層時不會完全燃燒掉.

The largest distinct meteorite discovered was in 1920 in South Africa. It weighed about 50 tons. 最大的隕石於1920年在南非發現。它重約50噸。

A bolide (火流星) means with “fireball." Astronomers often use “bolide" to identify an exceptionally bright fireball, particularly one that explodes (sometimes called a detonating fireball).

Now, you know the difference when you see these words in your reading exams.

Sources:
http://neat.jpl.nasa.gov/neofaq.html
http://www.pibburns.com/catastro/meteors.htm
http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/179222678.html
http://www.aerospaceguide.net/whatisanasteroid.html
http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/886-asteroid-comet-or-meteor.html
http://hubblesite.org/reference_desk/faq/answer.php.id=22&cat=solarsystem
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_difference_between_asteroids_and_comets


Now, let’s go back to English learning and over some additional words:

Word Form
1. atmosphere

the mixture of gases around the earth

(包圍地球的)大氣,大氣層,大氣圈

into the atmosphere

進入大氣層

These factories are releasing toxic gases into the atmosphere.

這些工廠向大氣中排放有毒氣體。

the character, feeling, or mood of a place or situation

氣氛;環境

(n.)
2. friction

the force that makes it difficult for one object to slide along the surface of another or to move through a liquid or gas

摩擦力;摩擦

cause/create friction

導致/產生摩擦

friction between…

之間的摩擦

When you rub your hands together the friction produces heat.

揉搓雙手時,摩擦會産生熱量。

(n.)
3. phenomenon

We talked about this word before, but I just want to review it here again. The plural form is phenomena.

something that exists and can be seen, felt, tasted, etc., especially something unusual or interesting

(尤指不尋常的或有趣的)現象

natural phenomenon 自然現象

social phenomenon 社會現象

phenomenon of… 現象

paranormal phenomenon 超自然現象

psychic phenomenon 通靈現象

Do you believe in the paranormal and other psychic phenomena?

你相信超自然及其他通靈現象嗎?

(n.)
4.  gaze

to look at something or someone for a long time, especially in surprise or admiration, or because you are thinking about something else

(尤指因為驚奇、羡慕或心不在焉而)凝視,注視,盯著看

gaze into/at 凝視

gaze into space 凝視太空

He spends hours gazing out of the window when he should be working.

他在本應工作的時候一連幾個小時盯著窗外發呆。

(v.)
5. trigger

to cause something to start

引起,引發(壞事)

trigger a memory (=make you suddenly remember something) 觸發記憶

Some people find that certain foods trigger their headaches.

有些人發現某些食物導致他們頭痛。

(v.)

OK, so that’s it for our lesson this week. A big thank you for those who listen to our academic vocabulary challenge every week. If you are interested in more in-depth vocab, knowledge, and how to effectively learn and use English, feel free to check out ericvocab.com! Thank you all and I will see you next week!

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