VT Speaking Challenge 14: The Industrial Revolution (帶你認識工業革命)!

Vocabulary Challenge 14: https://tw.voicetube.com/everyday/20190612

心智圖詞彙攻略: ericvocab.com 


Script:

Hello VoiceTubers! So, technology is amazing. And one major leap in the development of technology was the industrial revolution. What are some words that come to your mind when you think of the industrial revolution? Steam, steel, electric power and telephones?  Did you know that there were two industrial revolutions?

OK, let’s jump into our sentence of the day.


Engineers and inventors were also respected and encouraged in British society and were backed by wealthy patrons.

工程師和投資者在英國社會中也受到尊重和鼓勵,他們也受到富有的贊助家支持。


So let’s say this sentence again.

Engineers and inventors were also respected and encouraged in British society and were backed by wealthy patrons.

Faster

Engineers and inventors were also respected and encouraged in British society and were backed by wealthy patrons.


OK, you know the drill. What are the possible thought groups「字組」?

Engineers and inventors (1)

were also respected and encouraged (2)

in British society, (3)

and were backed by wealthy patrons. (4)

Now, you could connect 1, 2, 3 as one, but it might be difficult for some to think and speak without pause just a little. You definitely do not want to pause too long though.


How about intonation 語調?

Engineers and inventors were also respected and encouraged in British society (rise), and were backed by wealthy patrons (fall).


What about the sentence stress? 句子的重音 You could say:

Engineers and inventors were also respected and encouraged in British society and were backed by wealthy patrons.

So why not British society? Well, what words to stress also depends on context. Maybe the listeners already know we are talking about the industrial revolution in British society. Also, engineers and inventors were already mentioned so not as much stress was given to them.

就是這些英文詞彙已經被提過了,所以沒有放那麼多的重音。


OK, it’s grammar time!!! 文法時間到了!!!

Engineers and inventors were also respected and encouraged in British society (up), and were backed by wealthy patrons (down).

We seem to use the passive voice for this sentence.

Engineers and inventors

were also respected and encouraged

were backed by wealthy patrons

Why not say

People respected and encouraged Engineers and inventors in British society, and wealthy patrons backed them.

Well, the focus here is on engineers and inventors. We typically use the passive voice when the doers of the action are:

1. not important

and

2. known by everyone

Also, in the second sentence, if we use wealth patrons backed them, who is them? The people, engineers, and inventors? The focus here is “engineers and inventors," so they should be mentioned first to guarantee clear communication.

被動語態強調動作的接受者(或產物)

哪一個時候應該用被動語態

有很多規則但是其中之二就是

當大家已經知道原本的主詞是誰, 就是做動作的人

The thief was arrested. I won’t say the police because of the word arrest.

原本的主詞是誰和什麼東西不清楚

The window was broken. Who broke it? I don’t know.


OK, let’s take a break!

So, two industrial revolutions? What one is already too much for me to remember. Well, let me break it down for you.

The First Industrial Revolution began in the 18th century and focused primarily on textile manufacturing and steam power.  During this time, inventors in Europe and the United States created machines that mechanized production.  They focused on steam power because it lessened the need for manual labor.  The first steam engine was created by Thomas Newcomen in 1712.  He used it to remove water from the mines.

第一次工業革命始於18世紀,主要集中在紡織品製造和蒸汽動力方面。在此期間,歐洲和美國的發明者創造了機械化生產的機器。他們專注於蒸汽動力,因為它減少了對體力勞動的需求。第一台蒸汽機由Thomas Newcomen於1712年創建。他用它來清除礦井中的水。

The Second Industrial Revolution began in the mid-19th century. The First Industrial Revolution centered on textile manufacturing and the innovation of the steam engine, but the Second Industrial Revolution focused instead on steel production, electric power, the production of the automobile, and even communication technologies. In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.  In  1879, Thomas Edison patented the first commercially successful bulb.  In 1886, German scientist Gottlieb Daimler devised an internal combustion engine that was fuelled by gasoline, and an improvement in production was the introduction of the assembly line by Henry Ford in 1914. On an assembly line, the complex job of assembling many parts into a finished product was broken down into a series of small tasks.

第二次工業革命始於19世紀中期。第一次工業革命以紡織品製造和蒸汽機的創新為中心,但第二次工業革命的重點是鋼鐵生產,電力,汽車生產,甚至通信技術。 1876年,亞歷山大·格雷厄姆·貝爾發明了電話。 1879年,托馬斯愛迪生為第一個商業上成功的燈泡申請了專利。 1886年,德國科學家戈特利布·戴姆勒(Gottlieb Daimler)設計了一種以汽油為燃料的內燃機,1914年由亨利·福特(Henry Ford)引進裝配線改進了生產。在裝配線上,將許多零件組裝成成品的複雜工作產品被分解為一系列小任務。


OK, let’s get back to English learning!

Word Form
1. patron

a person or group that supports an activity or organization, especially by giving money

patron of…  的贊助人

贊助者,資助人

That merchant is a well-known patron of several artists.

眾所周知,那個商人是好幾幾位藝術家的贊助人。

person who uses a particular shop, restaurant, hotel, etc., especially regularly

老顧客,老主顧

(n.)

 

2. agrarian

relating to the land, especially the use of land for farming

土地的,耕地的;土地所有制的

an agrarian economy 農業經濟

This is prime agrarian land.

這是肥沃的耕地。

An agrarian place or country makes its money from farming rather than industry.

農業的;農村的

This part of the country is mainly agrarian.

該國這一地區以農業為主。

(n.)
3. urbanize

to build houses, offices, etc. in an area of the countryside so that it becomes a town

使城鎮化

Since then, our economy has continued to industrialize, urbanize, and internationalize. 

從那時起,我們的經濟繼續工業化,城市化和國際化。

urbanization (n.)
urbanized (adj.)

an urbanized country or area has a lot of houses, factories, shops, offices etc城市化的國家或地區有很多房屋,工廠,商店,辦公室等

the most heavily urbanized regions

城市化程度最高的地區

(v.)
4.  catalyst

an event or person that causes great change

促成變化的人;引發變化的事件

catalyst for…  引發…變化的事件

The high suicide rate acted as a catalyst for change in the prison system.高自殺率促成了監獄制度的改革。

 (n.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. emulate

to copy something achieved by someone else and try to do it as well as they have

效仿,模仿;和…競爭,努力趕上

They hope to emulate the success of other software companies.

他們希望能夠效仿其他軟體公司的成功先例。

(v.)

OK, always great to have you guys! Want to learn more about the industrial revolution, technology, and our world! Join our vocab class!

The theme song for this lesson is Alan Walker – Spectre [NCS Release]

I personally like this better:

 

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