VT Speaking Challenge 17: 國會介紹 An introduction to Parliament

Vocabulary Challenge 17: https://tw.voicetube.com/everyday/20190623


Script:

The parliament? Parliament is defined as the group of (usually) elected politicians or other people who make the laws for their country.

議會;國會

If you capitalize it Parliament, then it is

the main law-making institution in the UK

假如你把它大寫Parliament就成為英國主要的立法機構

Many governments follow a presidential system and parliamentary system. Do you want to know the differences? What about Taiwan?

Wait until our break time, and I will give you the info!

OK, let’s move onto our sentence of the day!


Parliament has evolved throughout its long history to become what it is today, changing over time to meet the needs of the people.

國會是經歷過漫長的歷史演進才演變至今日的樣子,它隨著時間改變來迎合大眾的需求。


So let’s say this sentence again.

Parliament has evolved throughout its long history to become what it is today, changing over time to meet the needs of the people.

Faster

Parliament has evolved throughout its long history to become what it is today, changing over time to meet the needs of the people.


OK, that’s a long sentence. What are the possible thought groups? 「字組」

Parliament has evolved throughout its long history (1)
to become what it is today (2)
changing over time to meet the needs of the people (3)

You could also break it up into smaller chunks:
Parliament has evolved (1)
throughout its long history (2)
to become what it is today (3)
changing over time (4)
to meet the needs of the people (5)

So how you break up the sentence really depends on the situation. I would use the first set to increase fluency.

所以你如何分這句話實際上取決於你說話的語境和目的。例如我可能就用比較少的停頓來增加流暢度~


How about intonation? 語調

Parliament has evolved throughout its long history (rise)
to become what it is today (fall-rise or fall)

We can fall-rise intonation at the end of statements when we may have more to add.

hanging over time to meet the needs of the people (fall)


What about the sentence stress? 句子的重音 You could say:

Parliament has evolved throughout its long history (1)
to become what it is today (2)
changing over time to meet the needs of the people (3)

So the stress is not always so obvious and clear in speech. Here, I would stress parliament since it is the first time I mention it. I would stress evolve since I want listeners to hear how it has evolved next, and I stressed changing and meet the needs because these are key information explaining how parliament has evolved.

所以講話中的壓力並不總是如此明顯和清晰。在這裡,我會強調議會,因為這是我第一次提到它。我會強調進化,因為我希望聽眾聽到它接下來如何演變,我強調改變和滿足需求,因為這些是解釋議會如何演變的關鍵信息。


OK, it’s grammar time!!! 大家最愛的文法時間到了!!! Are you ready!!!!

Parliament has evolved throughout its long history -> nice and easy, standard independent clause

to become what it is today (2) -> to infinitive phrase, giving us more information on the purpose, to v. / in order to

不定詞片語"to do my homework"當副詞使用,修飾動詞 went

changing over time to meet the needs of the people (3)

, which changed over time to meet the needs of the people -> unrestrictive adjective clause

which ->it->parliament

which changed over time to meet the needs of the people – > changing over time to meet the needs of the people adjective clause to -> adjective phrase

分詞片語* 是由形容詞子句簡化而成的

—————————-

OR it could be

because it changed over time to meet the needs of the people -> changing over time to meet the needs of the people -> participle construction

這個就是分詞構句!

I think it is the former and not the latter.

Why do you need to know this? This helps you understand why writers use a certain type of structures and their true intent, so it helps you to better decode information. This is a useful skill when you get to higher levels of assessments, that do not always test grammar but tests logic and the relationship between ideas, exams like the GRE and GMAT.

Adjective or Relative Clauses 形容詞子句/關係子句

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oq57B71iIO4

http://faculty.deanza.edu/flemingjohn/stories/storyReader$20 (English)

http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/adj.htm (English)

http://163.32.106.10/teacherweb/UploadDocument/31510_98-01-C10-%A7%CE%AEe%B5%FC%A4l%A5y(%B1%D0%A5%CE).doc (English)

http://w3.yfms.tyc.edu.tw/irene354166/GH-relative%20clause.htm(Chinese)

mail.yocjh.kh.edu.tw/~yc0035/materials/adj.clause.doc (Chinese)

http://pub.mlc.edu.tw/viewitem.jsp?itemid=000000000080774 (Chinese)

Reducing Adjective Clauses 形容詞子句簡化

http://free-english-study.com/grammar/reduced-relative-clauses.html(English)

http://www.mediafire.com/view/?7efvima6cwn4v30 (English)

http://210.240.55.2/~t311/moe/engb6/b6grammar/b6relative2.htm(Chinese)

http://blog.sina.com.tw/mok_mba/article.php?pbgid=44433&entryid=577082 (Chinese)


OK, let’s take a break!

So let’s talk about the presidential system 總統制 and the parliamentary system 內閣制.

Now, you might hear that some governments have a Presidential system. What’s the difference?

The major difference between these two systems is that in a Presidential system, the President, is directly voted upon by the people, and the executive leader of the Parliamentary system, the Prime Minister, is elected from the legislative branch directly. This is simplifying things so if you want to read more about the differences, type presidential vs parliamentary systems.

總統制(Presidential system). 實權總統. 民選的總統既是元首也是行政首長。例如:美國、菲律賓及多數的拉丁美洲國家等均屬之。

內閣制(Parliamentary system). 議會制又稱內閣制、議會民主制,是一種政治制度,特點是「議會無上」,政府首腦(總理或首相)權力來自議會,授權有兩種途徑:第一是議會改選後的多數議席支持,第二是政府首腦贏得議會的信任投票。

例如:英國、德國、日本、加拿大等國即屬之。

What about Taiwan?

A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter being responsible to the legislature of a state.

半總統制(英語:Semi-presidential system)又名雙首長制、混合制,是一種同時具有總統制和內閣制(議會制)特徵的共和制政體。半總統制的總統作為國家元首有一些特殊的行政權力,,國會的權力相對較小。

例如: 埃及法國

Now, was that interesting? It should because what system your country takes can determine the way the direction your country takes, and what your leaders can or cannot do.


OK, let’s get back to English learning!

Word Form
Word of the day!

1. need (mostly plural)
the things that a person must have in order to have a satisfactory life

meet/satisfy a need 滿足需求
basic needs 基本需求

(生活)必需品,需要物

Housing and education are basic needs.
住房和教育都是基本需求。

They don’t have enough food to meet their needs.
他們沒有充足的食物滿足需要。

(n.) 
2. democracy
a country in which power is held by elected representatives民主國家a Western democracy 西方民主國家
a new democracy 新民主國家
an emerging/fledgling democracy 新興/初出茅廬的民主國家the belief in freedom and equality between people, or a system of government based on this belief, in which power is either held by elected representatives or directly by the people themselves民主;民主思想;民主政體

The government has promised to uphold the principles of democracy.

政府承諾將堅守民主原則。

(n.)
3. monarchy

the system of having a king or queen

君主政體,君主制

the abolition of the monarchy 廢除君主制

Is monarchy relevant in the modern world or should it be abolished?
君主政體在現代社會仍有意義還是該被廢除?

(n.)
4. constituent
a voter (= person who can vote) in a particular area of the country(某選區的)選民,選舉人constituent of … 的選民The MP (Member of Parliament) worked hard, always talking to his constituents and listening to their problems.
這位參議員工作努力,總是跟本區選民交談,聽取他們的難處。
 (n.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. petition

to make a formal request for something, especially in a law court

(向法院)遞交申訴書,申訴

petition for something為…請願/申訴
petition … to v. 請求…去做什麼

They’re petitioning for/about better facilities for disabled people.

他們正在請願,希望當局能為殘障人士安裝更好的設施。
[ + obj + to infinitive ] I think we should petition the government to increase the grant for the project.
我認為我們應該請求政府增加對該專案計劃的撥款。

Petition can also be a noun.

a document signed by a large number of people demanding or asking for some action from the government or another authority

請願書

(v.)

OK, I’m sure you guys are now experts on the political systems of your country. If not, then time to do research. Why? So, you can now what your country is doing? Why? Because you can vote or talk to your representatives. Why? So you can change your life and the lives of others for the better. Why? Why not?

Today’s theme song is The Times They Are A-Changin’

心智圖詞彙攻略: ericvocab.com

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