[實事英文] Peace in War 戰地裡的和平



 
Empathy, understanding, and open communication are the keys to peace. Do not let hate cloud your judgment and conscience.
 
同理,理解和開放的溝通是實現和平的關鍵。不要讓仇恨迷惑你的判斷和良知。

1. empathy 同理心
2. keys to peace 和平的關鍵
3. cloud your judgement 迷惑你的判斷
 
 
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The First World War began in Europe and then spread to other regions from July 28, 1914 to November 11, 1918. On August 3, 1914, the United Kingdom declared war on Germany due to its invasion of Belgium. During the war, both sides engaged in trench warfare and attempted to encircle the other side. Soon, from the North Sea to the Swiss border, the two sides extended their trench lines, resulting in a stalemate on both sides.
 
第一次世界大戰是指從1914年7月28日到1918年11月11日,始於歐洲進而波及至其他地區的大戰。1914年8月3日,英國因為德國入侵比利時而對其宣戰,作戰期間雙方軍隊都試圖以包圍對方側翼的戰略來進行殲滅,很快地,從北海到瑞士邊境的土地上,雙方各自延伸其戰壕系統,陷入苦戰。
 
4. invasion of… …的侵略
5. result in a stalemate 導致陷入僵局
6. trench warfare 塹壕戰
 
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At the end of 1914, the first Christmas of the war, a “Christmas Open Letter" signed by 101 British women activists and sent to “German and Austrian women" called for peace. On December 7, 1914, Pope Benedict XV also called on the governments of the warring countries to consider a formal truce agreement. However, they sternly rejected these calls for peace.
 
1914年末,大戰期間的第一個聖誕節到來,一封由101位英國婦女參政運動者署名並寄給「德國與奧地利婦女」的「聖誕節公開信」呼籲和平,教宗本篤十五世亦在1914年12月7日,向正在交戰中的各國政府呼籲簽訂正式的休戰協定。然而,各國官方嚴正回絕這些對和平的呼喚與渴望。
 
7. an open letter 一封公開信
8. call for peace 呼籲和平
9. a truce agreement 停戰協議
10. warring countries 交戰的國家
11. sternly reject 嚴厲拒絕
 
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While there was no formal truce on both sides, about 100,000 Germans and British troops spontaneously ceased fire along the Western Front. The first truce began on Christmas Eve on December 24, 1914, when the Germans began to decorate their trenches in the Ypres region of Belgium.
 
儘管雙方沒有正式的休戰,仍然有大約10萬名的德軍和英軍自發性地沿著西線陸續中止了戰事。第一個休戰案例始於1914年12月24日的平安夜,當時德軍在比利時伊佩爾地區開始裝飾起他們的戰壕周遭。
 
12. formal truce 正式休戰
13. spontaneously ceased fire 自發地停火
 
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These German soldiers first adorned their trenches with candles and Christmas trees and then sang Christmas carols. British soldiers followed with carols of their own, and both sides began shouting Christmas greetings. Soon, the soldiers began to communicate in no-man’s land, and exchanged small gifts such as food, cigarettes, and wine, as well as buttons and hats as souvenirs. On that night, both sides enjoyed a long-lost peace. During the truce, the two sides also brought back the bodies of their fallen comrades from the front lines and buried them. In addition, the pastors of the two sides jointly held a joint service.
 
這些德國士兵先是在他們的戰壕與聖誕樹上擺上了蠟燭,並唱起聖誕頌歌來慶祝;英國士兵則以英文聖誕頌歌做為回禮,接著兩邊開始互相對彼此喊出聖誕節祝福。很快地,雙方開始在無人地帶交流,士兵們互相交換起食物、香菸和酒等小禮物,還有像是鈕扣與帽子等作為紀念品。在那一夜,戰區享受了久違的平和。而這次休戰期間,雙方也各自將陣亡的同袍帶回戰線後方集體埋葬。此外,雙方的牧師更共同舉行了聯合禮拜。
 
14. exchange gifts 交換禮物
15. long-lost peace 久違的和平
16. fallen comrades 陣亡同袍
17. front lines 前線
18. hold a joint service 舉行聯合禮拜儀式
 
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Sir Heras Smith-Dorren, the commander of the British Second Army, was furious upon learning about these unofficial truces. An order strictly forbidding any communication between the British and enemy soldiers was issued. In the next few years of the war, the artillery shellers were explicitly ordered to ensure that the fighting would not be interrupted again on Christmas Eve. The soldiers were reassigned to different fronts so that they would not fraternize with the enemy. Despite such orders, there was still deliberate suppression of fighting on various fronts. Soldiers, for example, would fire artillery at a fixed time to minimize casualties.
 
英國第二軍團指揮官赫拉斯·史密斯-多倫爵士在得知這些非官方的休戰行為後相當生氣,發布命令嚴格禁止英軍與敵方士兵有任何交流。大戰接下來的幾年內,砲隊砲擊手受命在平安夜仍要確保戰鬥不會再次中斷。軍隊也被輪流調防到前線各地的不同防區,以免他們與敵人過於熟悉。儘管上層如此命令,但各地還是有故意抑制戰鬥的狀況,像是雙方火砲在固定的時間打到固定的地點上,以免對方發生傷亡。
 
19. upon learning… 一得知…
20. strictly forbid 嚴禁
21. issue an order 發出命令
22. explicitly order to 明確地命令
23. fraternize with the enemy 與敵人友好相處
24. deliberate suppression of… 故意鎮壓…
25. fire artillery 發射火砲
26. minimize casualty 減少傷亡
 
★★★★★★★★★★★★
 
On the Christmas Eve of 1915, a football from the German front became a symbol of peace. Bertie Felstead, a private of the Royal Welch Fusiliers, recalled the historic moment. At Christmas, he recalled, soldiers of both sides spontaneously climbed out of their trenches at dawn, ceased hostilities, and partook in friendly exchanges. “It wasn’t a game as such, more a kick-around and a free-for-all. There could have been 50 on each side for all I know. I played because I really liked football. I don’t know how long it lasted, probably half an hour," he recalled.
 
而在1915年的平安夜裡,一顆來自德軍戰線的足球,成了和平的象徵。英國皇家威爾斯燧發槍團的二等兵柏堤·費爾斯特德(Bertie Felstead)在聖誕節唱了一夜的聖誕歌之後,回想起那時雙方士兵在黎明時自發地爬出各自戰壕,那高漲起來的友好氣氛:「這件事本身來說,與其說是場足球賽,更像是人人都可參加的到處踢球活動,就我所知那時每一邊都可能有約有50人加入活動。由於我個人很喜歡足球,於是我也參加了。我不清楚那場足球賽持續了多久,可能有一個半小時吧。」
 
27. a symbol of peace 和平的象徵
28. cease hostilities 停止戰鬥/戰爭行為
29. historic moment 歷史性時刻
30. partake in friendly exchange 參與友好交流
 
 
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Sources:
 
Alleyne, R. (2001, July 26). Veteran of 1915 soccer game dies. Retrieved August 6, 2019, from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1335265/Veteran-of-1915-soccer-game-dies.html
 
Condell, Diana (2001-08-03). “Obituary: Bertie Felstead". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077.
 
Dearden, L. (2014, December 27). Letter describing the Christmas truce of 1914 released for the first time. Retrieved August 6, 2019, from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/christmas-truce-of-1914-letter-from-trenches-shows-football-match-through-soldiers-eyes-9942929.html
 
Miracles brighten Christmas – HarrisonDaily.com: Opinion. (2013, January 03). Retrieved August 6, 2019, from https://archive.fo/20130103032619/http:/www.harrisondailytimes.com/articles/2009/12/25/opinion/editorials/doc4b32bc259368c715520590.txt
 
Patterson, David S. The search for negotiated peace: women’s activism and citizen diplomacy in World War I. Routledge, 2008. ISBN 0-415-96142-4 p. 52
 
Woodcock, J. (2013, November 17). England v Germany: When rivals staged beautiful game on the Somme. Retrieved August 6, 2019, from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/football/teams/england/10455611/England-v-Germany-when-rivals-staged-beautiful-game-on-the-Somme.html

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