[教育時評] 教養方式 Parenting Styles

教養方式還是政治體制? Parenting Styles or Political Systems?

在近代的家庭教養理論中,影響最大的要數鮑姆林德(Diana Blumberg Baumrind)的父母教養方式理論。鮑姆林德是美國加州大學伯克利分校的發展心理學教授同時也是兩項美國公共衛生局項目的主管和加利福尼亞州州項目的顧問。

她在在教養方式研究中發現不同的父母教養方式主要的差別在於愛和規範的維度上。根據愛和規矩這兩個維度上的強弱結合,可以勾畫出四種教養方式: 開明權威型(authoritative),威權專制型(authoritarian),放任型(permissive)和忽視冷漠型(uninvolved)。

在此分享其中一種教養方式:

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Authoritarian Parenting 威權專制型

The parent is demanding but not responsive. Authoritarian parenting has distinctive effects on children:

父母提出絕對化要求但不做出響應。專制教養方式對孩子會造成以下幾種獨特的效果:

1. Authoritarian parents are famous for saying, “Because I said so," when a child questions the reasons behind a rule. They are not interested in negotiating and their focus is on obedience.

當孩子質疑規則背後的原因時,威權專制型父母以「你懂什麼,我說了算」的回應公式而聞名。他們對談判不感興趣,他們的重點是服從。

2. They also don’t allow kids to get involved in problem-solving challenges or obstacles. Instead, they make the rules and enforce the consequences with little regard for a child’s opinion.

他們也不允許孩子參與解決問題的挑戰或障礙。取而代之的是,他們制定規則並將結果強加於孩子身上,卻很少考慮他們的意見。

3. Authoritarian parents may use punishments instead of discipline. So rather than teach a child how to make better choices, they’re invested in making kids feel sorry for their mistakes.

威權專制型父母可能以懲罰而不是紀律約束為手段。因此,與其說教孩子如何做出更好的選擇,不如說他們是在讓孩子為自己的錯誤感到抱歉。

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4. Children who grow up with strict authoritarian parents tend to follow rules much of the time. But, their obedience comes at a price.

與嚴格的威權專制型父母一起長大的孩子往往在很多時候都遵循規則。但是,他們的服從是有代價的。

5. Children raised by authoritarian parents tend to be conformist, highly obedient, quiet, and not very happy. These children often suffer from depression and self-blame.

由專制型父母養育的孩子傾向於變得墨守成規、唯命是從、安安靜且鬱鬱寡歡。這種孩子通常會生活在抑鬱和自責的陰影下。

6. Children of authoritarian parents are at a higher risk of developing self-esteem problems because their opinions aren’t valued.

威權專制型父母的孩子由於沒有重視自己的觀點而更有可能出現自尊上的問題。

7. They may also become hostile or aggressive. Rather than think about how to do things better in the future, they often focus on the anger they feel toward their parents. Since authoritarian parents are often strict, their children may grow to become good liars in an effort to avoid punishment.

他們也可能變得敵對或好鬥。比起考慮將來如何把事情做得更好,他們更常著眼於對父母的憤怒。由於威權專制型父母往往嚴格,為了避免受到懲罰,他們的孩子可能成長為善於說謊的人。

文章資料來自於維基百科和Verywell Family保健網站。

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Parents don’t fit into just one category and every family is different. There are times when parents tend to be permissive and times when parents are more authoritative. What parents need to be aware of is that there needs to be a balance in everything they do. When they lean completely towards one side, negative consequences are bound to occur.

父母不僅隸屬於一類,每個家庭也都不一樣。在某些時候或方面,父母傾向於寬容,而在另外的時候,父母更具權威性。父母需要意識到的是,他們所做的一切都要保持平衡。當當他們完全傾斜到一端時,必然會發生負面後果。

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參考資料

Bi X, Yang Y, Li H, Wang M, Zhang W, Deater-deckard K. Parenting Styles and Parent-Adolescent Relationships: The Mediating Roles of Behavioral Autonomy and Parental Authority. Front Psychol. 2018;9:2187. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02187

Santrock, J.W. (2007). A topical approach to life-span development, third Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Stassen Berger, Kathleen (2011). The Developing Person Through the Lifespan. Worth Publishers. p. 274.

“The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence. ERIC Digest". Eric Digests. 1992. Archived from the original on 2007-11-29. Retrieved 2007-09-23.

Image: Psychologyinaction.org


心智圖詞彙攻略: ericvocab.com

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