[英文學習] 我該如何學習英文?我不想走冤枉路!

這可能是我在臉書上最常收到的問題之一。如訂閱者所知,粉絲專頁為學生與老師提供大量的免費英文學習資源。有時,尤其是最近,幾乎每天都會收到這個問題。 此一問題可能表明,學習者並不清楚自己的學習目標,抑或被網路上大量的資訊所淹沒。 以下的一些資訊希望可以幫助同學找到適合自己的學習方式。
 
What is the best way to learn English?
 
This is probably one of the most common questions we get on Facebook. The page provides free learning resources to about 50K English teachers and learners, so we receive this question almost on a daily basis. The question shows that learners are either unclear about their own learning goals or simply overwhelmed by the vast amount of information on the web. Here are some suggestions:
 
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Q1. 我該如何學習英文?
 
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A1. 你想實現什麼目標
 
首要問題應是你想藉由英文實現什麼目標?而非該如何學習英文。你是否希望能夠積極參與日常對話或想用英文發表學術論文?想到海外就讀碩士學程嗎? 制定明確的目標可以讓你有持續學習的動力,即便你的目標可能會有所改變。
 
What do you want to achieve?
 
Rather than ask what the best way to learn English is, ask yourself what you want to achieve with English? Do you want to actively participate in daily conversations or publish your thesis in English? Perhaps you would like to study abroad as a graduate student? What are your goals? Having a clear set of goals and achieving them can provide you with sustained motivation, even though your goals might change down the road.
 
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A2. 請考量外部因素
 
思考一些可能影響學習的外部因素。每天有多少時間?能與老師接觸嗎?必須在三個月內通過考試嗎?你可以每天挪出時間來長期學習並練習英文嗎?
 
如果如果我想學西班牙語也能有機會常接觸講西班牙語的人,我可能找一些自學教材,使自身沉浸在語言當中,並盡可能地練習。我只打算學習西語會話,因此我可能不會參加密集的西語學術寫作課程。 但是,每個人的情況都不一樣。
 
上述問題多數都可以克服尤其現在是遠距學習的時代,但您的目標必須務實。在滿足您需求的同時也須保持平衡。例如,我們無法每天花三個小時來學習英文,因為我們都有工作與家庭。目標愈務實與清晰,您便愈有可能實現它們。
 
Consider external factors
 
Remember, external factors can affect your learning. How much time do you have every day? Do you have access to a teacher? Do you have to pass the TOEFL or IELTS in three months? Can you set aside time every day for continuous learning?
 
If I were learning Spanish and I had all the time in the world, I would just find some materials online, immerse myself in the language, and practice as much as possible with Spanish speakers. However, everyone’s conditions are different.
 
Most of the problems listed above can be overcome, especially with online resources, but you still need to be realistic in setting your goals. For example, it would be immensely difficult for most to commit to studying English three hours a day because of work and family obligations. The more realistic your goals are, the more likely you are to accomplish them.
 
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以下資源將提供更深入的觀點:
 
如何學習英文來完成目標?
 
如何設定目標和學習的動力:
 
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2. 哪裡可以找到適合的學習資源?適合的老師?
 
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A1. 資源
 
請參考上開答覆(目標與外部因素)。如果目標是能夠積極地參與日常對話,那麼你可能會想親臨實體教室。但有時間和足夠的金錢嗎?
 
線上課程也許是較佳的替代方案,但你可能會覺得制式化的課程枯燥無味,從而迅速地失去動力,可能也不會在課外時間多加練習。
 
Resources
 
Refer to your previous answers (goals and external factors). If your goal is to speak fluently, you might want to practice in a live classroom. However, do you have the time and financial means to do so?
 
Online classes might be a better alternative, but you might find the format dull, causing you to quickly lose motivation. These are all factors you must consider when searching for resources.
 
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至於教材,端視於你的初始程度與目標。你可藉由語言評估以及尋求老師的協助來確定你的初始程度。
 
必須先思考並解決這些問題,他人才有辦法幫助到你。
 
可以把資源簡化為:
 

1. 老師與學習夥伴 Teachers and practice partners

2. 學習材料(課內與課外) Learning materials (In and out of the classroom)

3. 評量與回饋 Assessments and Feedback

 
同學可以在網路上找到大量的免費資源,但你是否知道該如何有效地運用它們?例如,僅藉由大聲讀出字典裡的單詞來練習口說,是比較沒有效率的學習方式。
 
你是否有位受過專業訓練且經驗豐富的老師在幫助你實現目標? 在自己的語言學習中是否足夠積極?
 
As for learning materials, it depends on your current level and once again, your goal. You can find a suitable starting point by taking a language assessment and asking a teacher for advice.
 
Tons of free resources can be found online, but not all of them will help you accomplish your goals. For example, it would be unwise to practice speaking by only reading aloud words in a free online dictionary. You need an experienced teacher to help you find suitable materials. You can also ask your classmates and do research on your own.
 
CEFR 語言能力參考架構:
 
Lexile (藍思閱讀分級)
 
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以下內容或可更好地協助您了解這些問題:
 
高效率英文學習策略:
 
英語學習資源:
 
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B. 老師
 
尋找適合的老師是另一個常見的問題。「完美」的老師該具備哪些特質呢?是指樂於回應您問題的人嗎?還是一個受過訓練並獲得證照的教育者?抑或那個能成為你精神導師或朋友的人?
 
如何挑選「好老師」?
 
Teachers
 
How to find the right teacher is another common question. What qualities should the “perfect” teacher possess? Do you mean a person who is responsive to all your questions? A person who is a trained and licensed educator? Or, perhaps a person who is there to be your mentor or friend? Your peers and classmates can also be effective teachers. Ask them for advice and practice with them.
 
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3. 我更加困惑了。我不知道該如何開始和設定目標,也沒有足夠的動力去長期學習。該如何是好?
 
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A. 制定目標
 
同學需要有一個明確的總體目標以及較小的目標來實現。請與學校的老師或受過訓練的專業人員談一談,以協助你制定學習計劃。
 
你也將會需要有持久的動力來繼續前進。以下是我就該主題所寫的一些文章:
 
學習的動力 Motivation to Learn:
 
成長心態十大必知 10 Must-Knows for a Growth Mindset :
 
如何制定短期目標 How to Set & Achieve Goals:
 
Setting Goals
 
You need to have a clear overall goal and smaller objectives to meet. Once you have them down, talk to a school teacher or a trained professional to help you create a study plan.
 
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這是上述技巧的總結 Steps to take:
 
1. 知道自己想用英文實現目標。
 
Know what you want to achieve.
 
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2. 進行適當的語言評估(或請教老師)以判斷您的初始程度。
 
Take a suitable language assessment (or ask a teacher) to find your starting point.
 
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3. 尋找一位能幫您完成目標(學習英語)的老師。
 
Find a teacher who can help you accomplish your language learning goals.
 
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4. 與老師一起制定務實且有持續性的學習計劃。
 
Create a realistic and sustainable study plan with a teacher.
 
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5. 通常,老師會提供你學習材料,但仍可依照建議與研究找尋額外的學習材料。
 
Usually, your teachers will provide you with learning materials, but you can still find additional materials by asking your peers and doing research.
 
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6. 與夥伴或學習小組一起學習和練習。
 
Study and practice with a partner or study group.
 
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7. 定期評量以確保有在進步。
 
Take periodic assessments to monitor your progress.
 
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8. 若在一段時間後仍未進步,請調整你的學習方法與計劃。務必與老師討論。
 
Adjust your study plan if you do not show any progress after a couple of months. Always discuss your problems with a teacher.
 
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9. 為自己的教育負責。不要指望他人會為你做所有事情。
 
Take part in your own education. Do not expect others to do everything for you.
 
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然而,請記得,老師也是人,儘管我們希望能幫助所有人,我們也無法為同學做所有的事。請務必多做研究也參與自己的學習。有效學習的第一步是瞭解你想實現的目標。這裡有更多的資源可以幫助你學習「如何學習」。
 
如何成為自主的學習者:
 
何謂「自主學習」?
 
希望以上的回答對同學有幫助,也歡迎分享po文!
 
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英語學習資源: http://bit.ly/2klC66h

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