[CLIL英文詞彙] 你知道你的頭裡有「 耳石」嗎?

I did not know this until I went to the doctor’s today. Let’s not waste the opportunity to turn this into an English lesson.
 
在今天去看醫生以前,一直都不知道這件事。讓我們藉著這個機會一起學習英文吧。
 
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What is BPPV? 什麼是良性陣發性姿勢性眩暈?
 
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a disorder arising from a problem in the inner ear. Symptoms are repeated, brief periods of vertigo with movement, that is, of a spinning sensation upon changes in the position of the head. This can occur with turning in bed or changing position. Each episode of vertigo typically lasts less than one minute. Nausea is commonly associated. BPPV is one of the most common causes of vertigo.
 
1. a disorder 失調
2. arise from 由……引起
3. inner ear 內耳
4. display/show symptoms 出現症狀
5. experience vertigo 感到暈眩
6. a spinning sensation 旋轉的感覺
7. changing position 改變位置
8. an episode of (相關的)一連串事件;一段經歷
9. nausea 噁心
10. be commonly associated with 通常伴隨著
11. be accompanied by 伴隨著
12. common cause of ⋯⋯的常見原因
 
良性陣發性姿勢性眩暈(Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo,簡稱BPPV)為一種內耳誘發的疾病,患者會有重複性短暫眩暈的症狀,頭部移動時會感到天旋地轉,甚至連就寢翻身時都會有暈眩感。每次眩暈通常不會超過一分鐘,患者常會有噁心的症狀。該疾病為導致眩暈的疾病中最常見的一種。
 
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The ear’s role 耳朵的角色
 
Inside your ear is a tiny organ called the vestibular labyrinth. It includes three loop-shaped structures (semicircular canals) that contain fluid and fine, hair-like sensors that monitor the rotation of your head.
 
13. a tiny organ 微小器官
14. vestibular labyrinth 前庭迷路*
15. loop-shaped structure 環形結構
16. semicircular 半圓的
17. hair-like 及類似頭髮的
18. the rotation of 的旋轉
 
耳內有一個稱作「前庭迷路」的微小器官。其中有三個環形結構(半規管),內含液體以及類似頭髮的細小傳感器,用於監測你的頭部旋轉。
 
*labyrinth: 1. 迷宮;曲徑;2. 令人迷惑的東西,迷宮一樣的東西:https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english-chinese-traditional/labyrinth
 
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Other structures (otolith organs) in your ear monitor movements of your head — up and down, right and left, back and forth — and your head’s position related to gravity. These otolith organs contain crystals that make you sensitive to gravity.
 
19. monitor 監測
20. be related to 跟…有聯繫
21. sensitive to 對…敏感
22. otolith organs 耳石器官*
 
耳朵中的其它結構(耳石器官)可監測你的頭部運動——上下、左右、前後——以及受重力影響的頭部位置。這些耳石器官含有讓你敏銳感知重力的晶體。
 
*otolith: oto-,耳朵 + lithos,石頭
 
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For a variety of reasons, these crystals can become dislodged. When they become dislodged, they can move into one of the semicircular canals — especially while you’re lying down. This causes the semicircular canal to become sensitive to head position changes it would normally not respond to, which is what makes you feel dizzy.
 
23. for a variety of reason 出於各種原因
24. be dislodged 被脫落*
25. canal 管,道
26. feel dizzy 感到眩暈
27. dizziness 頭暈目眩; 眩暈
28. a loss of balance or unsteadiness 失去平衡或不穩定
29. vomit 嘔吐
 
出於各種原因,這些晶體可能會脫落。當它們脫落,可以進入半規管——尤其是在你躺下的時候。這使得半規管對頭部位置的一般變化變得敏感,這就是你會感到頭暈的原因。
 
 
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BPPV can result from a head injury or simply occur among those who are older. A specific cause is often not found. The underlying mechanism involves a small calcified otolith moving around loose in the inner ear. Diagnosis is typically made when the Dix–Hallpike test results in nystagmus (a specific movement pattern of the eyes) and other possible causes have been ruled out. In typical cases, medical imaging is not needed
 
30. result from 肇因於
31. a head injury 頭部創傷
32. underlying mechanism 潛在機制
33. a small calcified otolith* 一個小的鈣化耳石
34. a balance disorder 平衡障礙
35. diagnosis 診斷
36. result in 導致
37. be ruled out 被排除
38. typical cases 典型案例
39. medical imaging 醫學照影
 
*otolith: oto-,耳朵 + lithos,石頭
 
良性陣發性姿勢性眩暈可能肇因於頭部創傷,或單純發生在年長者身上,通常無法找到確切原因,可能的致病機轉是內耳的耳石鬆動,此一疾病與內耳迷路炎以及美尼爾氏症同屬平衡障礙。診斷此一疾病時,通常會進行頭位變換眼振檢查。若患有此一疾病,應會出現眼球震顫的情形,同時必須排除其它可能的原因。在一般情況下,患者不需進行醫學照影。
 
關於BPPV的完整資訊: https://mayocl.in/2JpzZXV
 
 
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CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning,是將學科內容和外語學習相結合,用外語教授科學、地理、歷史、藝術等內容,從而促進語言和學科知識的雙重學習: http://bit.ly/2K5l3PM
 
CLIL, STEAM 和跨領域教學有何異同?

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