[時事英文] 疫情下各國強化監控,健康與隱私不可兼得?

It is essential that the government enact measures to keep us safe and healthy. At the same time, we need a framework that prevents governments and companies from overstepping their bounds. How much data should they collect? How should measures be enforced? Are these measures temporary and limited to times of crisis? These are questions we need to think about now.
 
1、enact measures 實行措施
2、overstep the bounds 超出界線*
3、temporary measures 臨時的措施
 
政府必須採取措施以保障我們的安全與健康。同時,我們需要一個框架,以確保政府與公司不會踰越他們的界線。他們該搜集多少資料?該如何執行措施? 這些措施是臨時性的並僅限於危機時期嗎?這些是我們現在需要思考的問題。
 
 
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紐約時報報導:
 
In South Korea, government agencies are harnessing surveillance-camera footage, smartphone location data and credit card purchase records to help trace the recent movements of coronavirus patients and establish virus transmission chains. In Lombardy, Italy, the authorities are analyzing location data transmitted by citizens’ mobile phones to determine how many people are obeying a government lockdown order and the typical distances they move every day. About 40 percent are moving around “too much,” an official recently said. In Israel, the country’s internal security agency is poised to start using a cache of mobile phone location data — originally intended for counterterrorism operations — to try to pinpoint citizens who may have been exposed to the virus.
 
4、harness 控制;利用
5、transmission chain 傳播鏈
6、be poised to 隨時準備著
7、counterterrorism operation 反恐任務
8、a cache of ⋯⋯一批(隱藏的)…
9、pinpoint 精準指出;確定位置(或時間);準確描述
 
在韓國,政府機構正在利用監控影像、智慧型手機的定位數據和信用卡消費記錄來幫助追蹤冠狀病毒患者的近期活動,並確立病毒傳播鏈。在義大利倫巴底,當局正在分析市民手機傳送的定位數據,以確定有多少人遵守政府的封鎖令,以及他們每天通常行走的距離。一位官員最近說,大約有40%的人走動得「太多」。在以色列,國內安全部門準備開始使用手機定位數據的暫存--最初是用於反恐行動--以精確尋找可能已感染該病毒的國民。
 
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Yet ratcheting up surveillance to combat the pandemic now could permanently open the doors to more invasive forms of snooping later. It is a lesson Americans learned after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, civil liberties experts say. Nearly two decades later, law enforcement agencies have access to higher-powered surveillance systems, like fine-grained location tracking and facial recognition — technologies that may be repurposed to further political agendas like anti-immigration policies. Civil liberties experts warn that the public has little recourse to challenge these digital exercises of state power.
 
10、open the doors to 為⋯⋯打開大門
11、civil liberties experts 公民自由專家
12、fine-grained 細緻的;精細的;細顆粒的
13、location tracking 定位追蹤
14、facial recognition 臉部辨識
15、repurpose 重新利用;改變……的用途;為……找到新用途
16、political agenda 政治議題
17、anti-immigration policies 反移民政策
18、recourse 追索權
19、digital exercise of ⋯⋯的數位行動
20、state power 國家的權力
 
然而,為了對抗現在的全球性流行病加強監控,可能會為今後進行更具侵入性的竊聽打開永久的大門。公民自由專家說,這是美國人在2001年9月11日恐怖攻擊後學到的教訓。911事件發生近二十年後,執法機構如今掌握著更強大的監控系統,例如細緻精確的定位追蹤和臉部辨識--這些技術可能會被重新用於反移民政策等進一步的政治議題。公民自由專家警告,公眾幾乎沒有辦法挑戰這些由國家實施的數位行動。
 
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In hundreds of cities in China, the government is requiring citizens to use software on their phones that automatically classifies each person with a color code — red, yellow or green — indicating contagion risk. The software determines which people should be quarantined or permitted to enter public places like subways. But officials have not explained how the system makes such decisions, and citizens have felt powerless to challenge it.
 
21、indicate 指出;表明
22、contagion risk 感染風險
23、quarantine 隔離;檢疫
 
在中國的數百個城市,政府要求市民在手機上使用一種軟體,可以自動用顏色代碼--紅、黃、綠--給每個人分類,以顯示感染風險。這個軟體決定哪些人應該被隔離,或是可以進入地鐵等公共場所。但官員們並沒有解釋系統如何做出這樣的決定,市民們也覺得無力挑戰它。
 
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In Singapore, the Ministry of Health has posted information online about each coronavirus patient, often in stunning detail, including relationships to other patients. The idea is to warn individuals who may have crossed paths with them, as well as alert the public to potentially infected locations. On Friday, Singapore also introduced a smartphone app for citizens to help the authorities locate people who may have been exposed to the virus. The app, called TraceTogether, uses Bluetooth signals to detect mobile phones that are nearby. If an app user later tests positive for the virus, the health authorities may examine the data logs from the app to find people who crossed their paths. A government official said the app preserved privacy by not revealing users’ identities to one another.
 
24、stunning detail 驚人的細節
25、cross paths 相遇;交集
26、data logs 數據日誌
27、cross sb’s path (偶然)與某人相遇
 
在新加坡,衛生部在網路上公布了每個冠狀病毒患者的訊息,通常帶有驚人的細節,包括與其他患者的關係。這是為了警告可能與他們相遇的人,並提醒公眾注意潛在的感染地點。上週五,新加坡還推出了一款供國民使用的智慧型手機應用程式,幫助當局找到可能接觸過該病毒的人。這款名為「TraceTogether」的應用程式使用藍牙訊號偵測附近的手機。如果一名用戶後來檢測出病毒陽性,衛生當局可能會檢查該應用程式的數據日誌,以便找到與他們有接觸的人。一名政府官員表示,該應用程式通過不向用戶彼此透露身份來保護隱私。
 
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In New York this month, Mayor Bill de Blasio posted details on Twitter about a lawyer in Westchester County who was the second person in the state to test positive for the virus — including the name of the man’s seven-person law firm and the names of the schools attended by two of his children. A few hours later, The New York Post identified the lawyer by name and was soon referring to him as “patient zero” in the coronavirus outbreak in New Rochelle.
 
28、law firm 律師事務所
29、refer to 稱作;談及;與……相關
30、patient zero 零號病人;零號感染源
 
本月,紐約市長白思豪在推特上發布了西徹斯特郡一名律師、該州第二名病毒檢測呈陽性者的詳細訊息--包括這名男子的七人律師事務所的名稱,以及他兩個孩子的學校名稱。幾個小時後,《紐約郵報》確認了這名律師的名字,並且很快稱他為新洛歇爾冠狀病毒疫情中的「零號病人」。
 
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In a response posted on Facebook, Adina Lewis Garbuz, a lawyer who is the wife of the man, Lawrence Garbuz, pleaded with the public to focus instead on the personal efforts the family had made to isolate themselves and notify people who came into contact with them. “We would have preferred this all remain private,” Ms. Garbuz wrote in the Facebook post, “but since it is no longer, I wanted to at least share some truths and allay people’s fears.”
 
31、plead with the public 懇求公眾
32、instead (adv.) 作為替代*
33、isolate 將……隔離;使孤立
34、remain private 保持私密
35、come into 對……產生影響
36、allay 平息;減輕;使緩和*
 
這名男子叫勞倫斯・加布茲,他的妻子阿蒂娜・加布茲律師在臉書上發表回應,懇求公眾多關注加布茲一家如何盡量遠離他人,並通知與他們有過接觸的人。「我們本來希望這一切都保持私密,」加布茲在臉書上寫道,「但既然已經不再是隱私,我想至少分享一些真相,減輕人們的恐懼。」
 
 
 
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《紐約時報》完整報導:https://nyti.ms/3e2hFSR
 
圖片出處:https://bit.ly/2Xf1mMG
 
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