[英文學習] 到底該如何閱讀英文?

Extensive, intensive, or narrow reading? What is skimming and scanning?

英語學習者經常被要求在課堂上以多種方式閱讀。有些學習者被要求開口朗誦,讀出每個單詞。有些學習者則默念於心以理解文本。但默讀時,學習者該略讀其要義還是掃讀關鍵細節?抑或專注於語言功能還是練習閱讀策略?

English learners are often asked to read in diverse ways in the classroom. Some are asked to read orally and sound out each word. Others are told to read silently for comprehension. However, when reading silently, should learners skim for essential meanings or scan for key details? Or should they focus on linguistic features and practice reading strategies?

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Oral Reading

在找到一種閱讀方法之前,讓我們來檢視一下不同的閱讀類型。朗誦需要老師或學生大聲地朗讀,並幫助學生掌握聲韻,幫助他們改進語調、腔調、重音與節奏。默讀則包含精讀、泛讀以及窄式閱讀。

Before we can address these questions and find a suitable reading approach, let’s examine what the different reading types are.

Oral reading involves the teacher or students reading aloud and helps students to develop prosody, improving their intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm. Silent reading consists of intensive, extensive, and narrow reading, amongst others.

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Intensive Reading

精讀需要學習者在特定的學習目標與任務中進行精細的閱讀。這通常是課堂上的要求,學生須專注在文法及標示語等細節。同時學生還須辨別關鍵詞彙,並在老師的指導下仔細且反覆地閱讀文本。其目的在於建立語言知識以及對字面意涵、言外之意與修辭關係的理解。閱讀材料通常是少於500字的文本,因為較長的文本可能導致閱讀時難以關注到所有細節。

Intensive reading refers to reading in detail with specific learning aims and tasks. It is typically classroom-based, and students focus on features such as grammar and discourse markers. Students also identify key vocabulary, and text is read carefully and repeatedly with instructor input. The aim is to build language knowledge and understanding of literal meaning, implications, and rhetorical relationships. The materials used are usually shorter texts of 500 words or less at a time because it might be too difficult to focus on so many details with longer texts.

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Narrow Reading

窄式閱讀可被視為一種特殊的精讀,它是基於「可理解輸入」此一概念,意即學生閱讀略高於自身語言能力的材料。如此一來,在老師的協助下,學生得以輕鬆地專注於新的語言特徵。在練習窄式閱讀時,教師通常會找同一作者或同一主題的文章。因此,關鍵詞彙與文法結構會重複出現,學生便有更多機會在稍異的文本中看到這些特徵。這是一種非常成功的方法,因為它可以增進學生對文本的理解。

Narrow reading can be classified as a specific type of intensive reading. It is based on the concept of comprehensible input, in which students read materials slightly above their current linguistic abilities. In this way, students can easily focus on new language features with the aid of their teacher. When practicing narrow reading, teachers can find texts by the same author or the same topic. Thus, key vocabulary and grammatical structures repeat themselves, and students get many opportunities to see these features in slightly different contexts. It is a highly successful method because the comprehension of the text is enhanced due to learner familiarity with the author and subject matter.

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Extensive Reading, Scanning & Skimming

另一方面,泛讀需要學習者閱讀較長的文章,甚至閱讀整本小說以自娛並發展一般的閱讀技巧。泛讀經常是課外活動,因為老師可能會覺得這無法有效利用課堂時間,或者老師不希望課堂上太過安靜。

泛讀可能需要兩項技能:掃讀與略讀。我們可以掃讀關鍵細節或略讀要義。略讀與掃讀可使讀者大致掌握文本涵意。這並非意味著您在精讀時就不能略讀或掃讀,只是精讀通常專注在學習並理解語言特徵。當代的教育政策格外強調泛讀,因為我們期許學習者可以自主學習,並在課外進行閱讀。就其核心理念而言,泛讀鼓勵語言學習者讀其所愛!

On the other hand, extensive reading involves learners reading longer texts and even complete novels for enjoyment, and it aids learners in developing general reading skills. Extensive reading is usually done outside the classroom because teachers might feel it is not an effective use of class time, or are just uncomfortable with the extended silence.

Scanning and skimming are two skills commonly used in extensive reading. Readers can scan for key details or skim for essential meaning. Reading quickly with skimming and scanning can give readers a global or general understanding of the materials. This does not mean students cannot skim or scan when reading intensively, but typically, intensive reading focuses on learning and understanding linguistic features. Extensive reading is stressed in contemporary education policies, as learners are expected to be autonomous and read outside of class. At its core, extensive reading encourages language learners to read what they like!

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How should you read?

既然您已大致瞭解這幾種閱讀方式,您決定好要使用哪一種了嗎?答案是——您需要視情況而定!若您想進行泛讀,可閱讀更多有趣的新聞。若想精讀,您可以分析段落並與老師以及同學們回答問題。若想使用窄式閱讀,您可以找同一作者的同一主題文章,並專注在語言特徵。有些人甚至想以朗誦的方式來加強韻律或是重複閱讀來增加流暢度。

Now that you have a glimpse of different reading approaches, have you decided which you will use? The “answer" is that you need each for a different situation! You can practice extensive reading when reading for pleasure, or intensive reading when analyzing paragraphs with your teachers and peers. As for narrow reading, you can find articles by the same author on the same topic and focus on language features. Some might even want to practice oral reading to improve prosody or repeated reading to increase fluency.

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References

Gardner, D. (2008). Vocabulary recycling in children’s authentic reading materials: A corpus-based investigation of narrow reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 20(1), 92-122.

Krashen, S. (2004). The case for narrow reading. Language Magazine 3(5):17-19.

MacLeod, M. (2013). Types of Reading. Retrieved April 14, 2020, from https://slllc.ucalgary.ca/Brian/611/readingtype.html

Image source: https://www.ft.com/content/99936410-fdf8-11e8-aebf-99e208d3e521


《最強英文閱讀技巧》 https://bit.ly/35VSG1V 

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