[時事英文] Trees can talk


Forest Sounds:https://youtu.be/d0tU18Ybcvk?t=280



It’s an information superhighway that speeds up interactions between a large, diverse population of individuals. It allows individuals who may be widely separated to communicate and help each other out. But it also allows them to commit new forms of crime.

1. the information superhighway 資訊高速公路
2. speed up(使)加速;提高(……的)速度
3. diverse 多種多樣的
4. help each other out 互相幫助
5. commit a crime 犯罪



No, we’re not talking about the internet, we’re talking about fungi. While mushrooms might be the most familiar part of a fungus, most of their bodies are made up of a mass of thin threads, known as a mycelium. We now know that these threads act as a kind of underground internet, linking the roots of different plants. That tree in your garden is probably hooked up to a bush several metres away, thanks to mycelia.

6. fungus 真菌*
7. mycelium 菌絲體
8. A be made up of B A是由B組成的**
9. act as 充當;起⋯⋯作用
10. be hooked up to 連接
11. thanks to sb/sth 幸虧;由於



**在「A be made up of B」中,B通常為複數,表示A是由許多B所組成,如「This group is made up of 40 girls.」。而「A be made of B」則為「A是由B製成的」,意即物理變化,在製作過程中原料的本質不變,可以從成品A中辨認出原料B,例如:「木椅」顯然是由「木頭」製成的——「This chair is made of wood.」。


The more we learn about these underground networks, the more our ideas about plants have to change. They aren’t just sitting there quietly growing. By linking to the fungal network they can help out their neighbours by sharing nutrients and information – or sabotage unwelcome plants by spreading toxic chemicals through the network. This “wood wide web", it turns out, even has its own version of cybercrime.

12. the more…the more… 愈⋯⋯愈⋯⋯
13. nutrient 養分
14. sabotage 蓄意破壞
15. toxic chemical 毒性化學物質
16. it turns out 原來;結果表明
17. cybercrime 網路犯罪
18. wood wide web 森林資訊網*


*由於網址總以「World Wide Web」(全球資訊網)的縮寫「www」開頭,作者遂以「wood wide web」為諧音,來形容植物間的溝通網路。


It has taken decades to piece together what the fungal internet can do. Back in 1997, Suzanne Simard of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver found one of the first pieces of evidence. She showed that Douglas fir and paper birch trees can transfer carbon between them via mycelia. Others have since shown that plants can exchange nitrogen and phosphorus as well, by the same route. Simard now believes large trees help out small, younger ones using the fungal internet. Without this help, she thinks many seedlings wouldn’t survive.

19. piece together 拼湊
20. Douglas Fir 黃杉(道格拉斯冷杉)
21. Paper Birch 美洲樺(紙皮樺)
22. nitrogen 氮
23. phosphorus 磷
24. by the same route 藉由相同的途徑
25. seedling 幼苗;苗木



Another report suggests that tomato plants can ‘eavesdrop’ on defense responses and increase their disease resistance against potential pathogen. So not only do the mycorrhizae allow plants to share food, they help them defend themselves. It’s not just tomatoes that do this. Broad beans also use fungal networks to pick up on impending threats – in this case, hungry aphids. It was found that broad bean seedlings that were not themselves under attack by aphids, but were connected to those that were via fungal mycelia, activated their anti-aphid chemical defenses. Those without mycelia did not.

26. eavesdrop on 竊聽
27. defense response 防禦機制
28. disease resistance 抗病性;抗病力
29. pathogen 病原體
30. mycorrhizae 菌根(複數);mycorrhiza 菌根(單數)
31. broad beans 蠶豆
32. pick up on 注意到(他人未注意到的事物)
33. an impending threat 迫近的威脅
34. aphid 蚜蟲
35. under attack 遭受攻擊
36. chemical defense 化學防禦



But just like the human internet, the fungal internet has a dark side. Our internet undermines privacy and facilitates serious crime – and frequently, allows computer viruses to spread. In the same way, plants’ fungal connections mean they are never truly alone, and that malevolent neighbours can harm them. For one thing, some plants steal from each other using the internet. Some of these plants, such as the phantom orchid, “steal” the carbon they need from nearby trees, via the mycelia of fungi that both are connected to.

37. have a dark side 有黑暗的一面
38. undermine 損害
39. facilitate 促使
40. in the same way 同樣地
41. never truly alone 從未真正獨自一人
42. malevolent 有惡意的;歹毒的
43. for one thing 首先;一方面
44. steal from 偷竊
45. the phantom orchid 雪蘭(幻影蘭花)



Overall, these fungal networks make communication between plants, including those of different species, faster, and more effective. We don’t think about it because we can usually only see what is above ground. But most of the plants you can see are connected below ground, not directly through their roots but via their mycelial connections.

46. overall 總體而言
47. fungal networks 真菌網


《BBC報導》: https://bbc.in/2zCsLOR

圖片出處:之前在阿里山拍的 🙂





CLIL(Content and Language Integrated Learning)是將學科內容和外語學習相結合,用外語教授科學、地理、歷史、藝術等內容,從而促進語言和學科知識的雙重學習:http://bit.ly/2K5l3PM


Earth Day 2019:https://bit.ly/2ShSjY4



WordPress.com 標誌

您的留言將使用 WordPress.com 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

Twitter picture

您的留言將使用 Twitter 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )


您的留言將使用 Facebook 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

連結到 %s