[時事英文] 為何新冠病毒對男性的威脅似乎較大?


Are the causes biological, behavioral, or cultural?

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《紐約時報》報導:
 
The coronavirus that originated in China has spread fear and anxiety around the world. But while the novel virus has largely spared one vulnerable group — children — it appears to pose a particular threat to middle-aged and older adults, particularly men.
 
1. coronavirus 冠狀病毒
2. originate in 起源於⋯⋯*
3. spread fear and anxiety 散播恐懼與焦慮
4. the novel virus 新型病毒
5. spare 饒恕;不傷害;不毀壞
6. appear to 似乎;看起來像是
7. pose a threat 造成威脅
8. middle-aged 中年的
 
起源於中國的冠狀病毒在全世界傳播了恐懼和焦慮。儘管這種新型病毒在很大程度上放過了一個易受傷害的群體——兒童,但它似乎對中老年人構成了特別的威脅,尤其是對男性。
 
*originate: https://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/originate
 
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In February, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention published the largest analysis of coronavirus cases to date. Although men and women have been infected in roughly equal numbers, researchers found, the death rate among men was 2.8 percent, compared with 1.7 percent among women. Men also were disproportionately affected during the SARS and MERS outbreaks, which were caused by coronaviruses. More women than men were infected by SARS in Hong Kong in 2003, but the death rate among men was 50 percent higher, according to a study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine.
 
9. the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention 中國疾病預防控制中心
10. to date 至今
11. death rate 死亡率
12. compare with 與⋯⋯相比*
13. disproportionately 不成比例的
14. outbreak (n.) 爆發
15. infect 感染;傳染
 
在二月時,中國疾病預防控制中心發表了迄今為止最大規模的冠狀病毒病例分析報告。研究人員發現,雖然男性和女性感染該病的人數大致相等,但男性的死亡率為2.8%,而女性為1.7%。在由冠狀病毒引起的SARS和MERS疫情期間,男性也受到更大影響。根據《內科學紀事》上發表的一項研究,2003年香港感染SARS的女性比男性多,但男性的死亡率高出50%。
 
*compare with: https://bit.ly/3caiqYR
 
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A number of factors may be working against men in the current epidemic, scientists say, including some that are biological, and some that are rooted in lifestyle. When it comes to mounting an immune response against infections, men are the weaker sex. Women also produce stronger immune responses after vaccinations, and have enhanced memory immune responses, which protect adults from pathogens they were exposed to as children.
 
16. a number of factors 一些因素
17. biological 生物的;生物學的
18. when it comes to 當談及⋯⋯
19. mount (v.) 組織;發動;開展;舉行*
20. an immune response 免疫反應
21. the weaker sex 較弱勢的性別
22. vaccination 疫苗接種
23. enhance 提高;增加
24. memory(生物學)動物因經驗而造成的不停的行為修正
25. pathogen 病原體
26. expose 使接觸到;使暴露於
 
科學家們說,在當前的疫情當中,可能有很多因素對男性不利,其中一些是生物學上的,另一些則是生活方式上的。在對感染的免疫反應方面,男性也是處於弱勢的性別。女性在接種疫苗後也會產生更強的免疫反應,並增強免疫記憶反應,這可以保護成年人免受兒時接觸到的病原體的侵害。
 
*mount a campaign/challenge/search: https://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/mount
 
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Health behaviors that differ by sex in some societies may also play a role in disparate responses to infections. Chinese men also have higher rates of Type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure than women, both of which increase the risk of complications following infection with the coronavirus. Rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are almost twice as high among Chinese men as among women.
 
27. differ by ⋯⋯的差別
28. play a role 扮演一個角色;起到重要作用
29. disparate 截然不同的
30. A higher rate of… 較高的⋯⋯比例(率)
31. Type 2 diabetes 第二型糖尿病
32. high blood pressure 高血壓
33. complication 併發症
34. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 慢性阻塞性肺臟疾病
35. twice as high as ⋯⋯是⋯⋯的兩倍高
36. among 在⋯⋯(群體)中
 
在一些社會中,兩性的健康行為也可能在不同的感染反應中發揮作用。中國男性罹患第二型糖尿病和高血壓的比例也高於女性,這兩種疾病都增加了冠狀病毒感染後併發症的風險。中國男性患慢性阻塞性肺臟疾病的比例幾乎是女性的兩倍。
 
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In the United States, women are more proactive about seeking health care than men, and some small studies have found the generalization applies to Chinese students at universities in the United States, as well. Since the start of the outbreak, for example, public health officials have emphasized the importance of washing hands well and often, to prevent infection. But several studies have found that men — even health care workers — are less likely to wash their hands or to use soap than women, Dr. Klein said.
 
37. proactive 主動的;積極的
38. generalization 推論;類化;普遍化;通則化
39. apply to 適用於⋯⋯
40. public health officials 公共衛生官員
41. emphasize 強調
42. health care workers 醫護人員;健康照護工作者
43. be less likely to 不太可能
 
在美國,女性比男性更積極地尋求醫療照護,一些小型研究發現,這一結論同樣適用於在美國大學就讀的中國學生。例如,自疫情爆發以來,公共衛生官員一直強調勤洗手以預防感染的重要性。但幾項研究發現,男性——甚至是醫護人員——洗手或使用肥皂的可能性也低於女性,克萊恩博士說道。
 
《紐約時報》完整報導:https://nyti.ms/3b8CucD
 
圖片出處:https://bit.ly/2YMUOFX

相關報導:

https://bbc.in/2zUiWvS

https://n.pr/2WOimsn

https://bit.ly/2Xjmyj1

https://bit.ly/2LL59dF
 
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