[時事英文] 中國人大通過新國家安全立法

Stay safe, everyone!

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《紐約時報》報導:

BEIJING — China officially has the broad power to quash unrest in Hong Kong, as the country’s legislature on Thursday approved a plan to suppress subversion, secession, terrorism and seemingly any acts that might threaten national security in the semiautonomous city.

1. quash unrest 平息動盪
2. legislature 立法機構
3. suppress subversion and secession鎮壓顛覆與分裂
4. national security 國家安全
5. a semiautonomous city 半自治城市
北京——中國正式擁有了平息香港動盪局勢的廣泛權力。週四,該國立法機構幾乎一致通過了一項立法,以鎮壓在這座半自治城市中的顛覆、分裂、恐怖主義,以及任何可能威脅國家安全的行為。

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As Beijing hashes out the specifics of the national security legislation in the coming weeks, the final rules will help determine the fate of Hong Kong, including how much of the city’s autonomy will be preserved or how much Beijing will tighten its grip. Early signals from Chinese authorities point to a crackdown once the law takes effect, which is expected by September.
6. hash sth out 和其他人協商共同達成*
7. the specifics of 詳情,細節
8. legislation 法律;立法
9. autonomy 自治
10. tighten one’s grip (n.) 加強控制**
11. crackdown 制裁;處罰;打擊;鎮壓

12. take effect 起作用;生效

*hash sth out: https://bit.ly/3diPlLf

**tighten one’s grip: https://bit.ly/2zwrU2C
北京將在未來幾週內確定國家安全立法的具體內容,最終的規則將決定香港的命運,包括這座城市的自治能被保留多少,以及北京將在多大程度上收緊控制。中國當局的初步信號表明,一旦該法案生效,將發動鎮壓。法案預計將會在9月生效。
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The prospect of a national security law has prompted an immediate pushback in Hong Kong, where protesters are once again taking to the streets. The international community, too, has warned against infringing on the city’s civil liberties.
13. prospect of (發生好事情的)可能,可能性,機會
14. prompt a pushback 引發反彈
15. take to the streets 上街遊行示威,走上街頭*
16. infringe on/upon sth 侵犯(權利或自由)**
17. civil liberties 公民自由
這項國家安全法案的前景在香港立即引發了反彈,抗議者再次走上街頭。國際社會也警告不要侵犯這座城市的公民自由。
*https://bit.ly/36ESsuI

**https://bit.ly/3etBvpG

 

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The Trump administration signaled Wednesday that it was likely to end some or all of the U.S. government’s special trade and economic relations with Hong Kong because of China’s move. The State Department no longer considers Hong Kong to have significant autonomy, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said, a condition for maintaining the trade status.

 

18. signal (v.) to發信號;示意
19. special trade and economic relations 特殊經貿關係
20. significant autonomy 高度自治
21. the State Department 國務院
22. the Secretary of State (美國)國務卿

川普政府週三暗示,由於中國的舉動,可能會部分或全部終結美國政府與香港的特殊經貿關係。美國國務卿麥克·龐皮歐(Mike Pompeo)表示,美國國務院不再認為香港擁有高度自治,後者正是維持這種貿易地位的前提條件。

 

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Clues on the coming security law can be found in earlier templates: a 2003 bill in Hong Kong that was thwarted by protests, and a law in another semiautonomous Chinese city, Macau.
23. template 模板
24. be thwarted by… 被…阻撓

從此前的模版中可以一窺即將到來的安全法的樣貌:2003年香港的一項遭抗議活動阻撓的法案,以及中國另一座半自治城市澳門的一部法律。

 

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Both contained broadly worded bans on sedition, subversion, secession and treason, while also enhancing law enforcement powers. The Hong Kong legislation would have allowed raids without warrants if the police believed national security would be jeopardized by waiting for a judge — the prospect of which drew vast crowds of peaceful protesters.
25. sedition 煽動
26. treason 叛國
27. law enforcement powers 執法權
28. raid 突襲、查抄
29. warrants (由法官或官員簽署的)搜查令,逮捕狀,令狀
30. jeopardize 使處於危險境地;危及,損害

兩者均包含禁止煽動、顛覆、分裂國家和叛國等寬泛措辭的禁令,同時也增強了執法權。如果警察相信事關國家安全,來不及等待法庭授權,那麼香港法律將允許在沒有搜查令的情況下進行突查——這種可能性導致許多人發起了和平抗議。

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Both bills also made it easier for the authorities to win national security cases in court. The Macau legislation, for example, bars judges with foreign citizenship from serving on panels hearing national security cases. Hong Kong’s courts have long relied heavily on judges who have moved to the city from the British Commonwealth but retain passports from their home countries.
31. serve on panel 參與專家小組 (這裡指參與審理案件的小組)
32. hearing (n.) 若為名詞時指公聽會
33. rely heavily on 倚重
34. British Commonwealth= the Commonwealth of Nations 英聯邦
兩項法案還使當局更容易在法庭上贏得國家安全案件。例如,澳門立法禁止外籍法官審理國家安全案件。香港的法院長期以來一直倚重從英聯邦移居這裡但保留其本國護照的法官。
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The Standing Committee of China’s legislature is writing the new rules on its own, without consulting Hong Kong experts. Once the legislation is written, the Beijing-appointed leadership of Hong Kong is required to put it into law immediately.
35. the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPCSC; Chinese: 全國人民代表大會常務委員會)
36. appoint(v.) 任命、指定
37. put sth into law 將…納入法律
中國立法機關人大常委正在自行編寫新法,未諮詢香港專家。法案一旦定稿,北京任命的香港領導人將被要求立即將其納入法律。
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The current plan for national security laws is considerably broader than the 2003 bill. For starters, it calls for a ban on terrorism. Chinese officials have given no hint of how terrorism will be defined. But the same committee that will draft the Hong Kong rules issued antiterrorism laws in mainland China four years ago with very broad prohibitions.
38. call for sth號召,呼籲* 
39. give no hint of 沒有給出解釋
40. antiterrorism laws 反恐法律
41. prohibition 禁止;禁令
當前的國家安全法計劃比2003年法案要寬泛得多。它首先要求禁止恐怖主義。如何定義恐怖主義,中國官員沒有給出任何說明。但是,負責起草該法的委員會,正是四年前給出了寬泛禁止條款的反恐法律的制定者。
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Amendments in late 2015 to the mainland’s criminal law provisions regarding terrorism include long jail sentences for “whoever propagates terrorism or extremism by way of preparing or distributing books, audio and video materials or other items that propagate terrorism or extremism or by way of teaching or releasing information.”
42. amendments 修改,修訂,修正
43. criminal law 刑法
44. provision 條款
45. long jail sentences 長期監禁
46. propagates terrorism 傳播、散布恐怖主義
47. extremism 極端主義
2015年底,大陸刑法中關於恐怖主義的條款的修正案包括對以下罪名判處長期監禁:「以製作、散發宣揚恐怖主義、極端主義的圖書、音頻影片資料或者其他物品,或者通過講授、發布信息等方式宣揚恐怖主義、極端主義的,或者煽動實施恐怖活動的。」
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The wild card in the new rules could be international pushback. Mr. Lau said that if the United States took strong action, it would only reinforce Beijing’s concerns that foreign powers were using the city to undermine China’s national security. American measures may prompt the Standing Committee to write even more stringent legislation this summer, he added. “If they push hard, it may change for the worse rather than the better.”
48. wild card 無法預言的人(或事物)*
49. reinforce concern 加劇擔憂
50. undermine (常指逐漸地)削弱信心、權威等,損害

國際上的反對可能成為新法的變數。劉兆佳說,如果美國採取強硬行動,將只會加劇北京方面的擔憂,即外國勢力在利用香港破壞中國的國家安全。他還說,美國的措施可能促使人大常委在今年夏天制定更嚴格的立法。「如果他們強硬堅持,情況可能會變得更糟,而不是更好。」

*https://bit.ly/2TNxTqr

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《紐約時報》完整報導:https://nyti.ms/2XaV4x4

圖片出處: https://nyti.ms/2XaV4x4

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對「[時事英文] 中國人大通過新國家安全立法」的想法

  1. Dear Eric: Many thanks for your brilliant translation of 中國人大通過新國家安全立! It is particularly important at this time to make such information available to the English-speaking public in order to attract international support for the people of Hong Kong and to influence the course of events. I wanted to point out a small issue in the English. Where it reads “As Beijing hashes out the specifics of the national security legislation”, I would say “As Beijing thrashes out the specifics of the national security legislation”. American English may be different to Australian English, but for me “to thrash something out” means something like “to reach an understanding through extensive discussions and arguments”, while “to hash” basically only means 把 . . . 切碎as a verb. As a noun, it is commonly used in the idiom “to make a complete hash of something" [把某事弄糟], and perhaps, in a sense, this is what the PRC government is doing to Hong Kong! I follow your website in order to improve my written Chinese, and I certainly appreciate all the effort you put into your wonderful website! Simon

    • Thank you for your feedback and encouragement!

      The passage in question was directly taken from the NT Times as cited.

      The term “hash something out" is informal American English, which, as you stated, would explain the discrepancy.

      hash something ↔ out (phrasal verb) American English informal

      to discuss something very thoroughly and carefully, especially until you reach an agreement

      The reorganization plan was hashed out September 16.

      Source: https://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/hash-out

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