[詞彙區別] anticipate, expect 的區別

anticipate, expect 的區別

Although the use of anticipate and expect as synonyms is now largely accepted, at least in casual communications, the careful writer will do well to note that some authorities still hold that there is a subtle difference between them.

anticipate expect

儘管「anticipate」與「expect」作同義詞之用已為多數人所接受——至少在非正式的交談中,惟謹慎的寫作者會指出,有些專家仍認為兩者之間存在細微的差別。 


Although both words refer to a person’s attitude toward a future event, they differ in what they convey about that attitude. For example, some observers hold that the difference between the words relates to the level of certainty toward the future event (ie, anticipate implies that a person is certain that the event will take place, whereas expect implies only that a person predicts that the event will take place). However, this weak distinction is easily blurred, and in practice it seems that it is not often upheld. A stronger and more often upheld distinction maintains that anticipate is the stronger of the two words, connoting that some action has been taken to prepare for the foreseen event. This sense possibly arose from an early (late 1500s) use, “To seize or take possession of beforehand.” Although that use is now obsolete, by the early 1600s anticipate was being used to suggest simply “to take action beforehand,” a meaning still current. Bernstein points out that such action “Need not be taken so literally as to mean the performance of an overt act; it may simply connote an advance accommodation of the mind or the senses, even involuntarily, to the coming event.”

Need not be taken so literally as to mean the performance of an overt act; it may simply connote an advance accommodation of the mind or the senses, even involuntarily, to the coming event.

即便這兩個詞都代表一個人對未來事件的態度,然此二者所傳達的態度卻有所不同。例如,有些評論者(observers)認為,兩者間的差異在於未來事件的確定性(意即「anticipate」是某人確定某事將發生,而「expect」則是某人預測某事將發生)。但這種細微的區別極易混淆,在實際的運用中亦鮮有人遵守。一個較為有力且更多人認同的區別在於,「anticipate」相對強勢,該詞意味著已採取某些措施來為可預見之事做準備。此一理解可能源於15世紀末的用法——「事先搶佔」(To seize or take possession of beforehand)。此一用法雖早已過時,然「anticipate」於16世紀初作「事先採取行動」(to take action beforehand)之義仍延續至今。伯恩斯坦(Theodore Bernstein19041979)指出,此類行動「無須按照字面上的意義將其釋為具體可見的行動;它可能只是意味著心靈或知覺對即將發生之事所預作的準備,甚或是出於下意識的準備。」


In any case, if anticipate suggests the taking of some sort of action to prepare for an expected event, it seems clear that one should perhaps not use it when wishing to convey only simple expectation. Interestingly enough, even those who consider anticipate and expect synonyms do not extend the same acceptance to the synonymous use of unanticipated and unexpected.

在任何情況下,若你只想傳達期待(expectation)之義,那麼就不該使用「anticipate」,因為它意味著採取某種行動來為所盼之事做準備。有趣的是,即使是那些將「anticipate」與「expect」視為同義詞的人,也不會同意「unanticipated」以及「unexpected」可作為同義詞使用。


The misuse of anticipate in place of expect likely arose from the tendency common among writers and speakers to use larger words. It also is an example of what Garner terms “slipshod extension”—“the mistaken stretching of a word beyond its accepted meanings, the mistake lying in a misunderstanding of the true sense.” Garner further maintains that the use of anticipate in the sense of “to await eagerly” is also incorrect and points out that such use is also likely the result of slipshod extension.

anticipate」與「expect」的誤用或肇於寫作者與說話者泛泛而談(to use larger words)的共同傾向。[5] 此亦即加納(Bryan Garner1958-)所謂「任意引申」(slipshod extension——「誤解該詞真義,而錯誤地引申其涵義」——的一個例子。加納更進一步主張,在「殷切盼望」(to await eagerly)的語境下使用「anticipate」也是不正確的,並指出此一用法很可能也是「任意引申」的結果。

要點:

1. Referring to a person’s attitude toward a future event? Using anticipate and expect interchangeably is likely acceptable in casual communications, but in more formal contexts one should take care to observe the subtle differences between them.

涉及某人對未來事件的態度?在非正式的情況下,將「anticipate」與「expect」交替使用或可被接受;但在正式的場合裡,使用者應注意兩者間的細微差異。

2. Referring to the simple expectation of a foreseen event? Use expect.

僅單純與可預見之事的期待(expectation)相關?請使用「expect」。

3. Referring to a state of taking action—whether that action be either concrete, mental, or emotional—in preparation for a foreseen event? Use anticipate.—Phil Sefton, ELS. 

係指為可預見之事所作的行動(無論該行動是具體的、心靈的抑或是情感的狀態)?請使用「anticipate」。

參考來源:https://amastyleinsider.com/2012/07/24/anticipate-expect/


 

anticipate, expect, predict

Image source: https://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/anticipate 


發表迴響

在下方填入你的資料或按右方圖示以社群網站登入:

WordPress.com 標誌

您的留言將使用 WordPress.com 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

Google photo

您的留言將使用 Google 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

Twitter picture

您的留言將使用 Twitter 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

Facebook照片

您的留言將使用 Facebook 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

連結到 %s