[教育時評] 如何發展批判性思考?

We now know that critical thinking is needed to solve complex problems and that it can be defined as a set of skills, but how exactly do we develop it?
 
現在,我們知道解決困難的問題時需要批判性思考,而亦可將之視為一套技能,但我們該如何發展它呢?
 
1. 什麼是批判性思考: https://bit.ly/2THG1c2
 
2. 激發批判性思考: https://bit.ly/2yWnv8N
 
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One way is to use Bloom’s taxonomy when learning something new. After you remember the information, see if you can move up the pyramid by using the key verbs listed in each step to facilitate discussion and higher-order thinking: https://bit.ly/2M7aWu5
 
One does not need to carry out each of these steps in order (e.g., apply before analyze). However, learners typically need to “understand" information before they can “analyze" and “evaluate" it.
 
Bloom’s taxonomy can be used individually or with teachers and peers. Use it when acquiring information or thinking about a complex issue.
 
當你在接收資訊時,布魯姆的分類法(Bloom’s taxonomy)或許是其中一種可用之法。布魯姆分類法是美國教育心理學家班傑明・布魯姆(Benjamin Bloom)於1956年在芝加哥大學所提出的分類法,將教育者的教學目標分類,以便更有效地達成各項目標。在你記住所接收的資訊後,請檢視自己是否可以用下方金字塔中所列出的關鍵動詞來逐步遞進:https://bit.ly/2M7aW
 
無需按順序執行這些步驟(例如分析可以在應用之前),只是人們通常需要先記住與理解資訊,然後才能對資訊進行分析與評估。布魯姆的分類法可單獨使用,也可以與老師及同儕一起使用。在學習或思考議題時請善用它。
 
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Can you use this taxonomy in English learning? Can you think critically when learning English?
 
你可以在英語學習中使用這個分類法嗎?學習英文時你能批判性思考嗎?
 
Yes, you can! Language is a tool for us to decode text, symbols, and sounds and find meaning. It enables us to receive and give information, or in short, to communicate. Once we receive information, we can take the next step and begin thinking critically. Doing so will enhance our understanding of new information and help us to decide what action to take.
 
當然可以!語言是我們解碼文本、符號與聲音並且找尋意義的工具。它使我們能夠接收並提供資訊,或者簡單來說就是得以與人交流。當我們藉由語言獲得資訊後,下一步便是批判性思考。批判性思考可增進我們對資訊的理解並幫助我們根據該訊息採取行動。
 
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Many beginning English learners think it is impossible to think critically when learning because they only understand a few words. However, a learner can use critical thinking even when learning the most basic words!
 
許多英語初學者認為,批判性思考與英語學習不可能並行,因為他們只會幾個單詞。然而,即便是學習最基礎的語言也可以引入批判性思考。
 
First, teachers can use the students’ first language to help them understand higher-level concepts and facilitate thinking. Second, learners can break down the complex process of critical thinking into simple steps by using Bloom’s taxonomy.
 
首先,老師可用學生的母語,來協助他們建立層次較高的概念並促進思考。接著,老師可使用布魯姆的分類法來拆解批判性思考的複雜過程。
 
例如,我們今天學了蘋果(apple)和橘子(orange)這兩個單詞:
 
在記住知識(remember)的階段,老師可以問:水果的顏色、形狀,甚至是哪一個比較大?
 
在理解(understand)的階段,老師可以問:哪一個的維他命C比較多?哪一個切開後的色澤較易改變?
 
在應用(apply)時,可以問該用什麼東西去除它們的果皮?看到蘋果有個洞時是否該吃它?
 
在分析(analyze)時,我們可以比較這兩個水果分別提供了哪些營養?
 
在評鑑(evaluate)時,則會問哪一個水果對我們比較好?為什麼這一個比較貴,另一個卻比較便宜?
 
最後,在創造(create)階段的我們可想像可以如何創造一個由蘋果跟橘子融合起來的水果。它會長成什麼樣子?在此可以去想像,去發揮、去創造。
 
如你所見,每當你接收任何資訊,甚至是基礎語言學習,都可以鍛鍊批判性思考。
 
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As you can see, you can develop critical thinking every time you acquire new information, even when learning a second language. Now you know what critical thinking is, how it can help you, and how you can develop it!
 
After all that, I am still not going to give you a simple definition of critical thinking. If I were to do so, then I would not be helping you to think critically.
 
You’re welcome to leave your own definition below.
 
現在,你已瞭解何謂批判性思考、它如何幫助我們以及該如何發展它。但即便如此,我仍不會給出一個簡單的定義。若然,反倒會阻礙你進行批判性思考。
 
歡迎大家在下方留言與我們分享你的定義。
 
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Five Tips to Improve Your Critical Thinking
https://youtu.be/dItUGF8GdTw
 
Use English to Think Critically
https://bit.ly/2yUq639
 
Using Bloom’s Taxonomy in Learning
https://youtu.be/ayefSTAnCR8
 
Advancing Critical Thinking
https://bit.ly/2LBs2QI
 
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參考文獻
 
Athanassiou, N., McNett, J. M., & Harvey, C. (2003). Critical thinking in the management classroom: Bloom’s taxonomy as a learning tool. Journal of Management Education, 27(5), 533-555.
 
Facione, P. A. (2011). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Insight assessment, 2007(1), 1-23.
 
McPeck, J. E. (2016). Critical thinking and education. Routledge.
 
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Bonus question: What is the biggest difference between the steps “apply" and “create"?
 
Hint: You can find the answer in the picture.

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教育時評:http://bit.ly/39ABON9


來看看我的新聞英文課程:https://bit.ly/2YW6RiH

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