[時事英文] 拜登與中國的40年

Biden’s stance on China…where does he really stand?
stance (n.) (尤指公開表明的)觀點,立場

stand (v.) to have as an opinion 想,認為;有…觀點(或看法); (n.) (勇敢地抵抗的)觀點,立場,態度

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《紐約時報》報導:
Mr. Biden says he has had a “long interest in the evolving nature of the Chinese Communist Party” from his first visit to the country “as a kid in the Senate” in April 1979, as part of the first U.S. congressional delegation to the country since China’s Communist revolution in 1949. He met with the country’s leader, Deng Xiaoping, who was then beginning to transform China’s command economy with market reforms.
1. the evolving nature of… …不斷發展的本質
2. the Senate 參議院
3. congressional delegation 國會代表團
4. a command economy 統制經濟;指令型經濟
5. market reforms 市場改革

1979年4月,美國派出中國共產黨1949年當政以來第一個國會代表團,拜登作為其中一員第一次拜訪中國,當時他還是個「初入參議院的愣頭青」。他說,從那以後,他「對中國共產黨不斷發展的本質產生了長期的興趣」。他見到了中國領導人鄧小平,鄧小平當時正在開啟對中國指令性經濟的市場改革。

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Mr. Biden, leading his first overseas trip as the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, was also there in Beidaihe in 2001 to help usher in an important era in America’s relationship with China — the building of a commercial link that would allow the Communist nation entry into the World Trade Organization.

6. usher sth in 開創(尤指重大的變化或新事物);開啓
7. an important era重要時代
8. a commercial link 商業聯繫
9. the World Trade Organization 世貿組織

拜登也曾在2001年的北戴河幫助美中關係開創一個重要時代——與中國建立商業聯繫,使這個共產主義國家得以加入世貿組織。那是他作為美國參議院外交關係委員會(Senate Foreign Relations Committee)主席,首次率團前往海外。

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Mr. Trump now calls China’s entry into the World Trade Organization “one of the greatest geopolitical and economic disasters in world history.” But support for China’s membership was widespread at the time, including in corporations and the Republican Party. And excluding the world’s most populous nation from the international trade system might have led to worse outcomes, analysts say.

10. geopolitical 地緣政治
11. entry into… 進入…
12. the Republican Party 共和黨
13. the world’s most populous nation 世界上人口最多的國家
14. the international trade system 國際貿易體系
15. lead to a worse outcome 導致更糟的結果

如今,川普將中國加入世界貿易組織稱為是「世界歷史上最大的地緣政治和經濟災難之一」。但在當時,包括企業和共和黨在內,對中國入世的支持很廣泛。分析人士說,將世界上人口最多的國家排除在這個國際貿易體系之外,可能導致更糟糕的後果。

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Two decades later, China has emerged as a great power — and, in the eyes of many Americans, a dangerous rival. Republicans and Democrats say it has exploited the global integration that Mr. Biden and many other officials supported. Also, as the country boomed over the decades, Mr. Biden was also a frequent critic, especially on human rights.

16. emerge as 以某種型態出現 ; emerge from (從困境中)擺脫出來,存活下來
17. in the eyes of… 從…觀點看來,在…眼里
18. a dangerous rival 危險的對手
19. Republicans and Democrats 共和黨人和民主黨人
20. exploit(出於私利)利用;剝削
21. global integration 全球一體化
22. boom (v.) 增長;迅速發展
23. a critic 批評者,反對者
24. human rights 人權

20年後,中國已經成為了一個大國——並且,在許多美國人眼中,還是一個危險的對手。共和黨人和民主黨人都說,它利用了拜登和許多官員支持的全球一體化。並且,隨著幾十年來中國不斷繁榮,拜登也頻繁地發出批評,尤其針對人權問題。

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The 2020 election has been partly defined by what much of Washington sees as a kind of new Cold War. And as Mr. Biden faces fierce campaign attacks from President Trump, his language on China points to a drastic shift in thinking.

25. a new Cold War 新冷戰

26. point to/towards sth 表明可能是;顯示…可能會發生

27. fierce campaign attacks 競選中的猛烈攻擊

28. a drastic shift 劇烈轉變

2020年大選一定程度上被華盛頓許多人眼裡的一種「新冷戰」所定義。隨著拜登在競選中面臨川普總統的猛烈攻擊,他對中國的言論顯示出他的思維發生了劇烈轉變。

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Mr. Biden calls Xi Jinping, the authoritarian Chinese leader, a “thug.” He has threatened, if elected, to impose “swift economic sanctions” if China tries to silence American citizens and companies. “The United States does need to get tough on China,” he wrote in an essay in Foreign Affairs.

29. a thug 暴徒
30. swift economic sanctions 迅速的經濟制裁
31. silence (v.) 壓制批評,阻止(某人)表達意見
32. get tough on/with… 對…採取強硬態度

拜登將中國的威權領導人習近平稱為「暴徒」。他還威脅,如果當選,假使中國試圖壓制美國公民和企業,將「迅速實施經濟制裁」。「美國確實需要對中國採取強硬手段,」他在《外交事務》(Foreign Affairs)上發表的一篇文章中寫道。

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Mr. Biden’s 20-year road from wary optimism to condemnation — while still straining for some cooperation — is emblematic of the arc of U.S.-China relations, which have deteriorated to an unstable, potentially explosive state. But as Mr. Trump denounces the Washington establishment’s failures on China, Mr. Biden, an avatar of that establishment, is not recanting his past enthusiasm for engagement.

33. wary optimism謹慎樂觀

34. condemnation 譴責,指責,聲討
35. strain for/after effect 盡力追求
36. emblematic of 象徵的
37. deteriorate (v.)惡化
38. denounce (v.) 公開譴責
39. the Washington establishment 華盛頓建制派
40. recant (v.) 公開宣佈放棄(以前的信仰)
41. an avatar of… 作為…的化身
42. engagement 參與 ; 接觸: https://bit.ly/3miRQSD

*the Establishment https://bityl.co/3Pv2

從謹慎樂觀到譴責中國,但又同時努力尋求合作,拜登的20年是中美關係弧線的象徵。現在,中美關係已經惡化到一個不穩定的、存在爆炸可能的狀態。但在川普譴責華盛頓建制派在中國問題上的失敗之際,作為建制派化身的拜登並沒有放棄他過去對接觸政策的熱情。

完整報導: https://bityl.co/3Pqs
Text to speech reader (文字轉音檔): https://www.naturalreaders.com/online/

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