workshop, seminar, symposium, conference 的區別


•workshop 通常為小型和非正式討論會、有實際練習的工作坊 

•lecture (尤指面向學生的)講座,課

•seminar (有教導性質的) 小型專題討論會;研討會*

•symposium (專家的) 專題研討會,正式專題討論會 ; 通常比conference小但是比seminar 大

•conference 國內或國際的大型研討會

*seminar 專題討論

A seminar is a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization. It has the function of bringing together small groups for recurring meetings, focusing each time on some particular subject, in which everyone present is requested to participate.

•seminar 專題討論、研討會
•academic instruction 學術指導
•a commercial organization 商業組織
•offer a class 提供課程
•everyone present 在場的每一個人



This is often accomplished through an ongoing Socratic dialogue with a seminar leader or instructor, or through a more formal presentation of research. It is essentially a place where assigned readings are discussed, questions can be raised and debates can be conducted. The term seminar is also used to describe a research talk, often given by a visiting researcher and primarily attended by academics, research staff, and postgraduate students.

•an ongoing dialogue 持續的對話
•Socratic dialogue 蘇格拉底式對話
•presentation 簡報
•assigned readings 指定閱讀
•raise questions 提出問題
•conduct debates 進行辯論
•research talk 研究講座
•postgraduate students 研究生



The term “seminar" refers to a course of intense study relating to the student’s major. Seminars typically have significantly fewer students per professor than normal courses, and are generally more specific in topic of study. Seminars can revolve around term papers, exams, presentations, and several other assignments. Seminars are almost always required for university graduation.

•intense study 密集學習
•be related to 與…有聯繫
•more specific 更加具體
•revolve around sb/sth 以…為中心;以…為主題;圍繞…



Normally, participants must not be beginners in the field under discussion at US and Canadian universities. Seminar classes are generally reserved for upper-class students, although at UK and Australian universities seminars are often used for all years. The idea behind the seminar system is to familiarize students more extensively with the methodology of their chosen subject and also to allow them to interact with examples of the practical problems that always occur during research work.
•normally 通常;平常,一般地
•field 界;領域;範圍 (e.g., the field of history/science/medicine 歷史/科學/醫學領域)
•be reserved for 保留給
•upper-class students 高年級學生
•the idea behind… (某事)的原因
•familiarize (v.) 熟悉
•practical problems 實際問題
•methodology 一套方法;方法論;教學法







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