workshop, seminar, symposium, conference 的區別

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•workshop 通常為小型和非正式討論會、有實際練習的工作坊 

•lecture (尤指面向學生的)講座,課

•seminar (有教導性質的) 小型專題討論會;研討會*


•symposium (專家的) 專題研討會,正式專題討論會 ; 通常比conference小但是比seminar 大

•conference 國內或國際的大型研討會
 
資料來源: https://bit.ly/32szJVa



*seminar 專題討論
也可以嘗試: https://speechify.com/

A seminar is a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization. It has the function of bringing together small groups for recurring meetings, focusing each time on some particular subject, in which everyone present is requested to participate.

•seminar 專題討論、研討會
•academic instruction 學術指導
•a commercial organization 商業組織
•offer a class 提供課程
•everyone present 在場的每一個人

專題討論是學術指導的一種形式,由學術機構或是商業、專業組織提供。它具有使小組聚集在一起進行定期會議的功能,每次都聚焦在某個特定主題上並要求每個人出席參加。

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This is often accomplished through an ongoing Socratic dialogue with a seminar leader or instructor, or through a more formal presentation of research. It is essentially a place where assigned readings are discussed, questions can be raised and debates can be conducted. The term seminar is also used to describe a research talk, often given by a visiting researcher and primarily attended by academics, research staff, and postgraduate students.

•an ongoing dialogue 持續的對話
•Socratic dialogue 蘇格拉底式對話
•presentation 簡報
•assigned readings 指定閱讀
•raise questions 提出問題
•conduct debates 進行辯論
•research talk 研究講座
•postgraduate students 研究生

專題討論是學術指導的一種形式,由學術機構或是商業、專業組織提供。它具有使小組聚集在一起進行定期會議的功能,每次都聚焦在某個特定主題上並要求每個人出席參加;這通常是透過與研討會負責人或講師的持續蘇格拉底式對話、或者更正式的研究報告來呈現的。它本質上是一個討論指定閱讀材料、提出問題和進行辯論的地方;研討會一詞也用於描述研究講座,通常由訪問研究員提供,主要讓學者、研究人員和研究生們參加。

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The term “seminar" refers to a course of intense study relating to the student’s major. Seminars typically have significantly fewer students per professor than normal courses, and are generally more specific in topic of study. Seminars can revolve around term papers, exams, presentations, and several other assignments. Seminars are almost always required for university graduation.

•intense study 密集學習
•be related to 與…有聯繫
•more specific 更加具體
•revolve around sb/sth 以…為中心;以…為主題;圍繞…

「專題討論」一詞是指與學生主修相關的密集學習課程。與普通課程相比,專題討論時每位教授的學生通常會比較少,並且在研究主題上會更加具體。研討會包含學期論文、考試、演講和其他一些作業;幾乎總是需要參加這種研討會才能畢業。

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Normally, participants must not be beginners in the field under discussion at US and Canadian universities. Seminar classes are generally reserved for upper-class students, although at UK and Australian universities seminars are often used for all years. The idea behind the seminar system is to familiarize students more extensively with the methodology of their chosen subject and also to allow them to interact with examples of the practical problems that always occur during research work.
 
•normally 通常;平常,一般地
•field 界;領域;範圍 (e.g., the field of history/science/medicine 歷史/科學/醫學領域)
•be reserved for 保留給
•upper-class students 高年級學生
•the idea behind… (某事)的原因
•familiarize (v.) 熟悉
•practical problems 實際問題
•methodology 一套方法;方法論;教學法

一般而言,參與者在美國和加拿大大學之討論領域不得為初學者。研討班通常是為高年級學生保留的,儘管在英國和澳洲的大學,研討班經常是全年級均可使用的。研討會系統背後的想法是更廣泛地使學生熟悉所選學科的方法論,並允許他們和研究工作中經常出現的實例進行互動。


資訊來源: https://bityl.co/8Rwl

圖片出處: https://bit.ly/3iQhCxq


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