地緣政治單字篇 1: 資訊戰(上)

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Information Warfare Part 1

資訊戰(上)

Lately, due to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, we’ve seen the phrase “information warfare” popped up in the media. Russia has used information, or rather propaganda, to convince citizens of the Russian Federation of the righteousness of its actions. The Kremlin denies waging war in Ukraine, saying its goal is to protect Russian speakers in Ukraine against Ukrainian Nazis. As can be seen, information warfare can also be used on a nation’s own citizens.


近來因俄羅斯入侵烏克蘭,我們已在各大媒體中看到「資訊戰」(Information Warfare)一詞。俄羅斯利用資訊,或者更確切地說是透過宣傳(propaganda),讓俄國公民相信國家的行為是正確的。克里姆林宮否認在烏克蘭發動戰爭,並宣稱其目的(goal)在於保護烏克蘭裡講俄語的人免受烏克蘭納粹的侵犯。不難看出,資訊戰亦也可施加於自己國家的公民。

I have written on this topic a couple of times, but haven’t delimited the terms clearly, mostly due to the hazy nature of the words. Let’s attempt to gain a better understanding of them today, in case you encounter them on the news.


我已就此一主題寫過幾篇文章,但多礙於字詞本身的模糊性,因此一直未清楚界定此一術語。今天就讓我們試著更好地理解這個術語,以免你又在新聞裡看見它們。


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Here’s a list of relevant terms from a report to the US congress:

底下,有關此一用語的列表來自呈與美國國會的一份報告:

📌 Information warfare


Taking place below the level of armed conflict, information warfare (IW) is the range of military and government operations to protect and exploit the information environment. IW is a strategy for using information to pursue a competitive advantage, including offensive and defensive efforts. A form of political warfare, IW is a means through which nations achieve strategic objectives and advance foreign policy goals. Defensive efforts include information assurance/information security, while offensive efforts include information operations.


資訊戰(Information warfare)

發生於武裝衝突之下的資訊戰是軍事與政府的一系列行動,旨在保護與利用(exploit)資訊環境(information environment)。資訊戰是一種藉由資訊來追求競爭優勢的戰略(strategy),包含了進攻與防守上的努力(efforts)。作為一種政戰形式,資訊戰是各國實現戰略目標(objectives)與推進外交政策目標(goals)的一種手段。防守上的努力包含了資訊保證與資訊安全(information assurance & information security),而進攻的部分即為資訊作戰(information operations)。

On social media, IW is sometimes referred to as a “disinformation campaign,” yet disinformation is only one of the tactics used in information operations (IO). The types of information used in IO include propaganda, misinformation, and disinformation.

在社群媒體上,資訊戰有時被稱為「不實資訊宣傳戰」(disinformation campaign),但不實資訊只是資訊作戰裡所使用的戰術(tactics)之一。資訊作戰所使用的資訊類型包含了宣傳、錯誤訊息(misinformation)與不實資訊。



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📌 Information Operations 


Current and past U.S. government definitions have conceptualized information operations as a purely military activity involving a set of tactics or capabilities. IO includes computer network operations, psychological operations, electronic warfare, and more.


資訊作戰(Information Operations)

美國政府一貫將資訊作戰的定義概念化(conceptualized)為——涉及一系列戰術或戰力(capabilities)的純軍事行動。其包括電腦網路作戰(computer network operations)、心理戰(psychological operations)與電子戰(electronic warfare)等。


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📌 Psychological Operations 


A psychological operation involves the planned use of information (propaganda) to influence the emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. At the strategic level, PSYOPs are the delivery of information to influence foreign target audiences in support of U.S. goals and objectives. This type of information operation can be extended to social media.


心理戰(Psychological Operations)


心理戰係指有計劃地使用資訊(宣傳)來影響外國政府、組織、團體、個人的情緒、動機與客觀推理(objective reasoning),並最終影響其行為。在戰略層面,心理戰乃藉由資訊的傳遞,以影響國外的目標受眾(target audiences)來支持美國的目的(goals)與目標(objectives)。這種資訊作戰可延伸至社群媒體。

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📌 Electronic Warfare 


This is defined as military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. Examples include jamming command and control systems, satellites used for global positioning systems, and radio communications. Hopefully, this is a term we will not encounter in real life.


電子戰(Electronic Warfare)

其被定義為涉及藉由電磁與導能(directed energy)來控制電磁譜(electromagnetic spectrum)或攻擊敵人的軍事行動。例如干擾指揮與控制系統,以及用於全球定位系統的衛星與無線電通訊。幸好這是我們在現實生活裡不會碰上的術語。


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📌 Hybrid Warfare 

This type of warfare blends conventional, irregular, and information warfare. It may also include economic and other forms of competition and contention. Often used to describe information warfare, hybrid warfare encompasses activities that fall outside of the information warfare rubric. Some would say that Russia is currently conducting a hybrid war in Ukraine.


混合戰(Hybrid Warfare)


此類戰爭融合了常規作戰(conventional warfare)、非正規作戰(irregular warfare)與資訊戰。還可能包含經濟及其他形式的競爭(competition)與爭論(contention)。混合戰也包含了超出資訊戰範疇的行動,通常用於描述資訊戰。有人會說,目前俄羅斯正於烏克蘭實施混合戰。


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📌 Gray zone warfare



This type of warfare entails techniques to achieve a nation’s goals while denying those of its rivals by employing instruments of power that do not necessarily include use of acknowledged regular military forces. These may involve state and nonstate actors, and fall between traditional wars and peacetime.


灰色地帶作戰(Gray zone warfare)


此類作戰需要一些技術來實現一國之目的,同時也會以武力的手段——未必包含公認的正規軍事力量(acknowledged regular military forces)——來阻卻其競爭對手。其或涉及國家與非國家行為者(nonstate actors),並介於傳統戰爭與平時(peacetime)之間。


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📌 Asymmetric warfare 


I think you have heard this term quite a bit if you’ve paid attention to national defense. Taiwan is currently trying to build its asymmetric defenses to deter large state actors. Asymmetric warfare is fought between belligerents whose relative military power or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly. Information warfare can be considered as a part of asymmetric warfare as it can be a successful means of overcoming the disparity in military power.


不對稱作戰(Asymmetric warfare)

如果你關注國防,我想你已經聽說過這個術語了。目前臺灣正試圖建立不對稱防衛(asymmetric defenses),以威懾大型的國家行為者。不對稱作戰是在交戰雙方的相對軍力或戰略、戰術上有著顯著差異時所進行的。資訊戰可被視為不對稱作戰的一部分,乃因其可作為克服軍力差距的有效手段。


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Part 2 of this list of definitions will come next week. It’s a lot to write and translate.


鑑於這份列表尚有不少內容要寫與翻譯,因此下半部將於下週出爐。

資料來源:https://sgp.fas.org/crs/natsec/R45142.pdf

圖片出處: https://on.ft.com/3rneLk1

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