地緣政治單字篇 2: 資訊戰(下)

278797969_5027588783997887_4328284648131403439_n

現在,我們對不同類型的戰爭有了大致的瞭解,讓我們繼續討論網路上遇到的各類資訊。


📌  Active measures (積極措施)

These are activities undertaken to achieve foreign policy objectives by state-sponsored influence operations targeting citizenry, influence operations between nations, and population-to-population influence operations.

此類行動的實施乃透過由國家資助而針對其公民的影響戰(influence operations)、國與國間的影響戰以及群體對群體(population-to-population)的影響戰,來達成外交政策的目標(objectives)。



📌  Soft power (軟實力)

Soft power is, according to international relations scholar Joseph Nye, “the ability to get what you want through attraction rather than coercion or payments.” This may involve the use of information with a positive spin in order to compel decision-makers toward actions in one’s own interests.

根據國際關係學者約瑟夫.奈伊(Joseph Nye,1937—)的說法,軟實力是「透過吸引而非強迫或報償來獲取自己想要的東西之能力。」這可能涉及使用經正面修飾(positive spin)的資訊,以迫使決策者採取符合自身利益的行動。


📌  Public diplomacy (公共外交)

This refers to government-sponsored programs intended to inform or influence public opinion in other countries; its chief instruments are publications, motion pictures, cultural exchanges, radio, and television.

此係指旨在告知或影響他國輿論的政府資助計畫;其主要工具為出版物、電影、文化交流、廣播與電視。


📌   Propaganda (宣傳)

This is the propagation of an idea or narrative that is intended to influence, similar to psychological or influence operations. It can be misleading but true, and may include stolen information. A government communicating its intent, policies, and values through speeches, press releases, and other public affairs can be considered propaganda as well as public diplomacy. These communications have strategic value in that over time they can create perceptions that steer decision-makers towards a certain course of action.

此係指某一觀點(idea)或論述(narrative)的宣傳旨在產生影響,類似於心理戰或資訊戰。它可能具有誤導性,但卻是真實的,亦可能包含盜竊的情資(stolen information)。政府透過演講、新聞發布及其他公共事務傳達其意圖、政策與價值觀,可被視為宣傳以及公共外交。這些溝通方式具有戰略價值,因為隨著時間的推移,它們可創造出某些看法,來引導(steer)決策者採取特定的行動方針。


📌  Misinformation (錯誤訊息)

This is the spreading of unintentionally false information. Examples include internet trolls who spread unfounded conspiracy theories or web hoaxes through social media, believing them to be true. Misinformation can have the effect of sowing divisiveness and chaos in a target society, as the truth becomes harder to discern.

此係指非故意的假情報(unintentionally false information)之傳播。個中例子包含了,網路酸民們(internet trolls)透過社群媒體傳播毫無根據的陰謀論或網路惡作劇,並相信這些資訊是真實的。由於真相變得難以分辨,錯誤訊息可能會在目標社群中播下分裂與混亂的種子。


📌  Disinformation (不實資訊)

Unlike misinformation, disinformation is intentionally false. Examples include planting deliberately false news stories in the media, manufacturing protests, doctoring pictures, and tampering with private and/or classified communications before their widespread release.

不像錯誤訊息,不實資訊是故意造假。個中例子包含了,於媒體中故意植入虛假的新聞報導、製造反對聲浪、篡改圖片,甚或是在廣泛發布前篡改私人與機密的通訊。




Now that we have a better sense of information warfare and associated terms, what can we do? I would personally examine the power relations behind the information you receive. Examine the intentions of the actors publishing, distributing, or even commenting on the news. What information is missing? How is information interpreted in the article? What language is being used? Who does the information benefit and who does it harm? What are the political or commercial interests involved? How can you respond to different types of information? These are but a few of the questions you ask yourself when reading the news or even memes on social media.

現在,我們對資訊戰及相關術語有了更好的理解,我們能做些什麼?我個人會檢視我們所接收到的資訊其背後之權力關係。檢視行動者發表、分發甚至評論新聞的意圖。哪些資訊遺漏了?該篇文章如何詮釋這些資訊?正在使用哪些話語?資訊對誰有利而不利於誰?涉及哪些政治或商業利益?我們可以如何應對不同類型的資訊?這些不過是你在閱讀新聞甚或是社群媒體上的迷因時,可捫心自問的一些問題。

地緣政治單字篇 1: 何謂「資訊戰」?
https://bit.ly/3v4Qu4x

圖片出處: https://bit.ly/3k2ldJi

發表迴響

在下方填入你的資料或按右方圖示以社群網站登入:

WordPress.com 標誌

您的留言將使用 WordPress.com 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

Twitter picture

您的留言將使用 Twitter 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

Facebook照片

您的留言將使用 Facebook 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

連結到 %s