在定性研究 (qualitative research) 中,研究範式 (research paradigm)、價值論 (axiology)、本體論 (ontology)、認識論 (epistemology)、方法論 (methodology)、方法 (method) 和研究設計 (research design) 有何區別?

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In qualitative research, what’s the difference between research paradigm, axiology, ontology, epistemology, methodology, method, and research design?

在定性研究(qualitative research) 中,研究範式 (research paradigm)、價值論 (axiology)、本體論 (ontology)、認識論 (epistemology)、方法論 (methodology)、方法 (method) 和研究設計 (research design) 有何區別?


A research paradigm is an overarching set of assumptions, values, and beliefs that underlie and shape the way a researcher approaches and conducts research. It is a theoretical framework that guides the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, and it influences the design of the research study.

研究範式 (research paradigm)是一套統領性的假設、價值觀和信仰,它指導研究者的方法和探究,並影響研究設計。它是一個廣泛的理論框架,用於收集和解釋數據。


Axiology is the study of values and value judgments. That is, it looks at questions about what is good, bad, right, or wrong. To be more specific, axiology determines the values and assumptions that underlie the research process, and how such values and assumptions influence the interpretation of results.

哲學中的價值論 (axiology)是研究價值和價值判斷的學科。它探討什麼是好的、壞的、正確的或錯誤的問題。在研究中,價值論決定了研究過程中的價值觀和假設,以及它們如何影響結果的解釋。


Ontology is a philosophical concept that refers to how researchers view the fundamental nature of reality or being, specifically addressing the question of what exists or can be said to exist. In terms of conducting research, ontology guides the assumptions researchers make about the nature of the occurrences that they are exploring and how they go about exploring it.

本體論 (ontology) 是一種哲學概念,指現實或存在的基本本質。它處理存在或可以說是存在的問題。在研究中,本體論決定了研究人員對所研究現象的本質的假設,以及他們如何研究它。  


Epistemology is the study of knowledge and belief in that it examines the nature, scope, and limits of knowledge. In research, epistemology, under the umbrella of ontology, determines the assumptions researchers make about the nature and sources of knowledge, and how they go about acquiring and validating it.

認識論 (epistemology) 是研究知識和信念的學科。它檢驗知識的性質、範圍和限制。在研究中,認識論決定了研究人員對知識的本質和來源的假設,以及他們如何獲取和驗證知識。


Methodology is the study of methods used in a particular field of study, and involves the systematic and theoretical analysis of methods used in research. In research, methodology refers to the overall approach to conducting the research, including the specific methods and procedures used to collect and analyze data.

方法論 (methodology) 是研究特定領域研究或活動中使用的方法的學科。它涉及研究中使用的方法的系統和理論分析。在研究中方法論指的是進行研究的整體方法,包括收集和分析數據所使用的具體方法和步驟。


A method is a specific procedure or set of procedures used to do something. Specifically in research, a method is the particular techniques or procedures used to collect and analyze data.

研究方法 (research method) 是用於做某事的具體程序或一組程序。在研究中,方法指的是收集和分析數據所使用的具體技術或程序。 


Research design is the plan or strategy of a researcher. It ought to outline the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing data, and determine a schedule for conducting the research. In short, research design determines the overall structure of the study and the methods used to collect and analyze data.

研究設計 (research design) 是研究策劃或策略。它概述了收集和分析數據的方法和步驟,以及進行研究的時間表。在研究中,研究設計決定了研究的整體結構和收集和分析數據使用的方法。 


To learn more about these concepts, you can refer to the following sources:

如果想了解更多關於這些概念的資訊,可以參考以下資源:

  • Research Paradigm: Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Ontology: Guarino, N. (2015). Formal ontology. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ontology-formal/
  • Axiology: Swanton, C. (2019). Axiology. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/axiology/
  • Epistemology: Goldman, A. I. (2014). Epistemology. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epistemology/
  • Methodology: Creswell, J. W. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Method: Neuman, W. L. (2017). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
  • Research design: Trochim, W. M. K. (2006). Research methods knowledge base (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/design.php

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