各種研究範式 (research paradigm): 唯物主義 (positivism) 、解釋主義 (interpretivism)、批判理論 (critical theory)、建構主義(constructivism) 和實用主義 (pragmatism)

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As a graduate student in the social sciences, it is important to be aware of the various research paradigms that are commonly used. These include positivism, interpretivism, critical theory, constructivism, and pragmatism (Bryman, 2012).

當社會科學的研究生時,了解常用的各種研究範式非常重要。這些包括唯物主義、解釋主義、批判理論、建構主義和實用主義(Bryman,2012)。


Positivism is a research paradigm that focuses on the use of objective, quantitative methods to study social phenomena. The approach is based on the belief that social phenomena can be studied in a way that is similar to natural phenomena (Bryman, 2012).

唯物主義著重於使用客觀、定量方法研究社會現象。這種方法基於社會現象可以像自然現像一樣被研究的信念(Bryman,2012)。


Interpretivism is a research paradigm that emphasizes the subjective nature of social phenomena and the importance of understanding the meanings that people attach to their experiences (Bryman, 2012). Interpretivism revolves around the belief that social phenomena cannot be fully understood through only objective measurement. It stresses that the interpretation of people’s experiences and actions is critical in helping us understand social phenomena.

解釋主義是一種研究範式,強調社會現象的主觀性和理解人們對經驗的意義的重要性(Bryman,2012)。這種方法基於社會現象無法僅通過客觀測量充分理解的信念,以及對人們經驗和行為的解釋是理解社會現象的重要組成部分的信念。


Critical theory is a research paradigm that highlights the role of power and ideology in shaping social phenomena (Bryman, 2012). A critical approach would involve social phenomena being analyzed in terms of how they reinforce, exacerbate, or challenge existing power dynamics and social inequities.

批判理論是一種研究範式,突出了權力和意識形態在塑造社會現像中的作用(Bryman,2012)。這種方法基於社會現象應該根據它們如何加強或挑戰現有的權力動態和社會不平等進行分析的信念。


Constructivism is a research paradigm that focuses on the role of individual and collective meaning-making in shaping social phenomena (Bryman, 2012). That is, social phenomena are constructed through the interaction and communication of individuals, and that these constructions are influenced by the cultural, historical, and social context in which they occur.

建構主義是一種研究範式,著重於個人和集體意義製造在塑造社會現像中的作用(Bryman,2012)。這種方法基於社會現像是通過個人的互動和溝通建構的信念,以及這些建構受到文化、歷史和社會背景的影響的信念。


Pragmatism emphasizes the practical considerations and usefulness of research, with an emphasis on addressing real-world problems (Bryman, 2012). Researchers using this paradigm may employ a variety of research methods, depending on the specific research question and the context it is embedded in.

實用主義是一種研究範式,強調研究的實用考慮和有用性,著重於解決現實問題(Bryman,2012)。使用這種範式的研究人員可能根據具體的研究問題和背景使用各種研究方法。

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