研究範式 (research paradigms)

paradigms-emerald
圖片出處: https://www.nadasisland.com/doc/paradigms/

Research paradigms are broad theoretical frameworks informing and shaping the way research is conducted (Guba & Lincoln, 1994), and there are several main types of research paradigms.

研究範式 (research paradigms) 是一種廣泛的理論框架,它指導並影響研究的進行 (Guba & Lincoln, 1994)。有幾種不同的研究範式,包括:


Positivist: The positivist paradigm is based on the concept that objective reality exists and that it can be studied through empirical data (Giorgi, 2009). Researchers using this paradigm often use quantitative methods such as experiments and surveys to examine hypotheses and identify variable relationships].

實證主義 (positivist):實證主義範式基於相信客觀現實存在,並可以通過經驗數據進行研究 (Giorgi, 2009)。運用這一範式的研究者通常使用實驗和調查等定量方法,以測試假設並確定變量之間的關係。


Interpretive: Researchers employing this paradigm focuses on the importance of an individual’s subjective experiences and perspectives (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011). They often employ qualitative methods, especially interviews and observations, in order to gain a deeper understanding of these subjective experiences and perspectives. 

解釋主義 (interpretive):這一範式強調個體主觀經驗和觀點在研究中的重要性 (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011),運用這一範式的研究者通常使用訪談和觀察等質性方法,以更深入地了解這些經驗和觀點。


Critical: The critical paradigm views research as a means of challenging and critiquing existing power structures and inequalities (Freire, 1970), and researchers who use this paradigm often engage in advocacy of social issues.

批判主義 (critical):批判主義範式認為研究應用於挑戰和批判現有的權力結構和不平等 (Freire, 1970) ,運用這一範式的研究者通常使用質性方法,並可能還參與活動主義或倡導。


Constructivist: A constructivist researcher posits that individuals actively construct their own understanding of the world through their lived experiences and interactions with others. Those who employs this paradigm often turn to qualitative methods to understand how meaning is constructed by individuals (Guba & Lincoln, 1994) .

建構主義 (constructivist):建構主義範式認為,個體通過個體的經驗和與他人的互動來主動建構對世界的理解,運用這一範式的研究對者通常使用質性方法,如訪談和觀察,以了解個體如何建構意義 (Guba & Lincoln, 1994)。


Realist: This research paradigm is based on the conception that there exists an objective reality independent of our perception (Guba & Lincoln, 1994). The goal of research under this paradigm is to define and understand this objective reality. Realist researchers generally uses methods designed to uncover how underlying structures, patterns, and causes shape the world (Creswell, 2013). Some realist methods include experiments and observations, amongst other forms of data collection and analysis. Realist research is also associated with the use of quantitative methods and is characterized by a focus on explanation, prediction, and generalization (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011).

現實主義 (realist) 是一種研究範式,它基於相信有一種獨立於我們感知之外的客觀現實的信念 (Guba & Lincoln, 1994)。在這一範式中,研究的目標是發現和理解這種客觀現實。現實主義研究通常使用旨在揭示塑造世界的基礎結構、模式和原因的方法 (Creswell, 2013)。這些方法可能包括實驗、觀察和其他形式的數據收集和分析。現實主義研究通常以解釋、預測和概括為特點,並且通常與量化方法的使用有關 (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011)。


Pragmatic: The pragmatic paradigm stresses the practical relevance of research to real-world problems and researchers who use this paradigm can utilize a variety of research methods depending on the specific research question and its context (Creswell, 2013).

實用主義 (pragmatic):這一範式強調研究的實用性和對現實世界問題的相關性,運用這一範式的研究者可能會根據特定的研究問題和背景使用各種研究方法 (Creswell, 2013)。


Reference list:

  • Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds.). (2011). The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum.
  • Giorgi, A. (2009). The theory, practice, and evaluation of the phenomenological method as a qualitative research procedure. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 40(1), 3-17.
  • Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105-117). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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