[翻轉視界 10] Pandemic Bullies?

Bullies __________ empathy and have four personality traits—called the Dark Tetrad—that often occur together.

霸凌者缺乏同情心和具有四種人格特質,即「黑暗四聯征」 (Dark Tetrad),這些特質經常同時出現。

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文章來自《華爾街日報》:

People tried to push each other around before the pandemic. But lately it seems as if the bullies are taking over. Constant fear and anxiety fuel anger. The move of many of our interactions online means we are having less face-to-face communication; psychologists have long known that this decreases empathy, while anonymity—or the illusion of it—makes it easier to misbehave. And in a time of deep polarization, the tone of public discourse has grown more antagonistic.

1. bully (n.) 霸凌者
2. take over 接管,佔領
3. constant fear 持續的恐懼
4. fuel anger 激起憤怒;fuel (v.) 加劇,激起
5. psychologist 心理學家
6. face-to-face communication面對面的溝通
7. decrease empathy 降低同理心
8. anonymity (n.) 匿名
9. the illusion of …的假象
10. a time of deep polarization 兩極分化的時局
11. public discourse公眾的表述
12. antagonistic 敵對的

在疫情大流行之前人們相互鞭策前進,但近來霸凌行為似乎正接管局面。 無盡的恐懼與焦慮激起了憤怒。 許多互動轉移至線上,這意味著我們面對面的交流減少了; 心理學家對此早有所見,這樣的轉變會減少同理心,而匿名(或匿名的假象)使人們更易犯錯。 在這兩極分化的時局,公眾的表述越來越具有敵對性。

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A bully is someone who tries to intimidate another person, often repeatedly, whom he or she sees as weak or vulnerable. According to psychologists, bullies have four personality traits—called the Dark Tetrad—that often occur together: Machiavellianism, which is a tendency to calculatedly manipulate others for your own good; psychopathy, an attribute that includes a lack of empathy and a willingness to take risks; sadism, the propensity to derive pleasure from inflicting pain on someone else; and narcissism, an obsession with self and feeling that you are better than other people.

13. intimidate(v.) 恫嚇,恐嚇
14. personality traits 人格特質
15. tetrad 四分體 (Dark Triad 黑暗人格三合一)
16. Machiavellianism 馬基雅弗利主義的,為奪取權力而不擇手段的
17. a tendency to 一個傾向
18. manipulate others 操縱他人
19. psychopathy 心理病態或精神病態
20. attribute (n.) 特性; attribute (v.): https://bit.ly/2E51C9i
21. sadism 虐待狂
22. a propensity to… …的(尤指不良的)傾向,嗜好,癖好
23. inflict(v.) pain 施加痛苦
24. narcissism 自戀
25. an obsession with… 癡迷於…

霸凌者是試圖恫嚇他人者,通常是重複性的,針對他或她認為軟弱或脆弱的對象。 根據心理學家的說法,霸凌者具有四種人格特質,即「黑暗四聯征」 (Dark Tetrad),這些特質經常同時出現:馬基維利主義(Machiavellianism),這是一種為自身利益而計畫性地操縱他人的傾向; 精神病,一種缺乏同情心和甘於犯險的特質; 虐待狂則是指通過使別人痛苦來獲得快樂的傾向; 以及自戀,對自我的迷戀和感覺自己比別人更好。

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They exploit others, doing whatever it takes to feel special. They feel entitled, acting as if the world owes them and should bend to their will. And they lack empathy, often becoming so fixated on the need to feel special that they stop caring about the feelings of others.

26. exploit 利用
27. do whatever it takes to… 為了…會去做任何事情/願意付出一切/不計代價
28. bend to sth 屈從於
29. lack empathy 缺乏同理心
30. fixated on 異常依戀的;固戀的

他們利用他人,用盡手段讓自己感到與眾不同。 他們感到被賦予權力,舉止好似這個世界虧欠他們,應該屈從於他們的意願。 他們缺乏同理心,常過度執著於對與眾不同的需求,以至於他們不再在意他人感受。

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How should you respond to a bully?

First, determine whether you are safe. If not, call security or the police. Document the bully’s behavior. This will help if you need evidence, and it will keep you from doubting yourself. Second, do not engage. Engaging will encourage the bully, who will respond to feeling threatened by attacking more. Third, don’t let the bully take up space in your head. Try to limit how much you think or talk about the person to others. Block the bully on social media. Accept that you’re not going to change the person. Don’t blame yourself.

31. document (v.)…behavior 紀錄…的行為
32. do not engage (v.) 不要與之正面交鋒 ; engage: https://bit.ly/3fW9PKu
33. take up space 佔據空間
34. block (v.) 封鎖 ; block: https://bit.ly/2Y25wH4

那我們該如何應對霸凌者呢?

首先,確定自身是否安全。 若不安全,請致電安全部門或警察。 記錄下霸凌者行為。 如果你需要證據時這將有所幫助,並且可以防止你自我懷疑。第二,不要與之正面交鋒。正面交鋒將會助長霸凌者,他們將以更多的攻擊行為做為感受到威脅的回應。第三,不要讓霸凌者占據你的思緒。試著限制你對霸凌者的思考或談論的程度。 在社交媒體上封鎖霸凌者。要接受你無法改變霸凌者。不要歸責於自己。

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Don’t blame yourself for the actions of a bully. Always seek help.

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📰 華爾街日報訂閱方案: https://bit.ly/39ULVh1

🎓 華爾街日報獎助學金計畫 (A20): https://bit.ly/2C2tUAI

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如何增進同理心: https://bit.ly/34qSKnC

翻轉視界系列文章: https://bit.ly/3fPvKUs

完整報導: https://on.wsj.com/3kHKgjL

圖片出處: https://econ.st/2XYrXgE