[詞彙區別] by、 through、 via 的區別

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by、 through、 via 的區別

1. by:在旁邊,從旁邊,到旁邊(強調從旁邊經過或路過)

(1)pass/go by 是指從旁邊經過或走過;
(2)something is done by somebody 是指某事在某人身邊(旁邊)被做完,借指某事由某人完成;
(3)by 9 o’clock 是指在9點鐘附近(或左右),因為當有人問你要時間表的時候,基本上是希望你在某個時間點之前完成,如果在之後完成則說明那個時間點定得沒有多大意義。
(4)by train 等短語是指在火車近旁或者火車在自己近旁,借指自己在火車上。

在歸納出並抓住了 by 的本義之後,我們就會發現 by 其實並不是用來表示「經過、通過」的,它的這一意思是借用出來的,是用法所致。或者說,即便用 by 表示「經過、通過」的意思,也是「從旁邊」經過或路過,所有的抽象用法都是由此衍生出來的。



2. through:貫穿,穿過,透過,通過(強調從內部穿透)

through一詞比較簡單,它指的是從事物的內部穿透過去,比如說,光線透過眼鏡的鏡片進入我們的視網膜,河流穿過峽谷或城鎮,某人闖過某片樹林或叢林等等。注意:這個內部可以是完全封閉的(比如身體),也可以是部分封閉的(比如地表或峽谷),甚至可以是開放的(比如某一扇牆壁或門板)。through 的核心意思是從中穿透或貫穿。

through同時也可以可以被定義為「由於」 (as a result of)。例: The company lost the order through production delays. 該公司由於生產延誤,失去了訂單。 



3. via:經由,途徑,從某處(強調通過中間的媒介達成目的)

via一詞似乎用得較少,日常生活中我們經常喜歡用by而不用via,比如要表達「發郵件」或「以郵件的方式」,基本上多數人第一個想到的就是 by email,其實這時候用介詞 by 的話,嚴格說起來是非正式的用法,正式的用法是用via。*

*請注意,多數母語人士仍會使用 by email。



前面已經分析過 by 的本義,很明顯 by 表示“通過某種方式或途徑”的用法(如by train / by means of等)是借用或引申推廣出來的,但by在表示該意思的時候有個前提:主體自己要跟隨工具在一起,這是by的本義(在附件、在旁邊)所決定的,或者說,主體和工具不能發生分離(這是by與via的本質區別)
然而,這只是一種解釋。對於母語人士來說,by 和 via 在這種情況下是可以互換的。

而via表達的意思是“經由某個人、某個區域、某個工具達到某個目的”,這裡的“人/區域/工具”都是中間媒介,它們起著傳遞、連接等作用,這時候主體跟工具是註定要分離的。也就說:

(1)send someone a note via email 是指經由email的傳遞給某人發個便條通知某人某事情;
(2)travel from A to C via B 是指從A地出發經由B地前往C地;
(3)broadcast via satellite 是指經由(或通過)衛星進行廣播。

資料來源: http://hi.baidu.com/heartsoft2008/item/0d5a0c12f56249ce39cb30dd


English explanation: 

The word “by" is most often used, and can mean the following:
1 near someone or something; at the side of someone or something
-The telephone is by the window.

2 used to show who or what does, creates, or causes something
-He was knocked down by a bus.

3 used for showing how or in what way something is done
-The house is heated by gas.
-to travel by boat/bus/car/plane
to travel by air/land/sea

4. used to show the degree or amount of something
The bullet missed him by two inches. House prices went up by 10%.

More uses: http://oaadonline.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/dictionary/by


“Through" generally means to go from one end of something/place to the other.

1. from one end or side of something or someone to the other
-The bullet went straight through him.Her knees had gone through
-The sand ran through (= between) my fingers.

2. see, hear, etc. through something to see, hear, etc. something from the other side of an object or a substance
-I couldn’t hear their conversation through the wall.

3. past a barrier, stage, or test
-Go through this gate, and you’ll see the house on your left.

4. (also informal thru) until, and including
We’ll be in New York Tuesday through Friday.

5. by means of; because of
-You can achieve success through hard work/by working hard.

More info: http://oaadonline.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/dictionary/through


“Via" emphasizes by someone or something.

1. through a place
-We flew home via Dubai.
(This use is synonymous with “through/thru."

2. by means of a particular person, system, etc.
I heard about the sale via Jane.The news program came to us via satellite.

(This use is synonymous with “by.")

source: http://oaadonline.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/dictionary/via

So at times, the words are interchangeable, but they all emphasize different things.


Sources:
1. oaadonline.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com
2. http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-through-and-vs-via/#ixzz2VK59sm4n
3. http://hi.baidu.com/heartsoft2008/item/0d5a0c12f56249ce39cb30dd


心智圖詞彙攻略: https://bit.ly/31rvaFL

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