[詞彙區別] by、 through、 via 的區別

「through」的圖片搜尋結果

by、 through、 via 的區別

1. by:在旁邊,從旁邊,到旁邊(強調從旁邊經過或路過)

(1)pass/go by是指從旁邊經過或走過;
(2)something is done by somebody是指某事在某人身邊(旁邊)被做完,借指某事由某人完成;
(3)by 9 o’clock是指在9點鐘附近(或左右),因為當有人問你要時間表的時候,基本上是希望你在某個時間點之前完成,如果在之後完成則說明那個時間點定得沒有多大意義。
(4)by train等短語是指在火車近旁或者火車在自己近旁,借指自己在火車上。

在歸納出並抓住了by的本義之後,我們就會發現by其實並不是用來表示“經過、通過”的,它的這一意思是借用出來的,是用法所致。或者說,即便用by表示“經過、通過”的意思,也是“從旁邊”經過或路過,所有的抽象用法都是由此衍生出來的。

2. through:貫穿,穿過,透過,通過(強調從內部穿透)
through一詞比較簡單,它指的是從事物的內部穿透過去,比如說,光線透過眼鏡的鏡片進入我們的視網膜,河流穿過峽谷或城鎮,某人闖過某片樹林或叢林等等。注意:這個內部可以是完全封閉的(比如身體),也可以是部分封閉的(比如地表或峽谷),甚至可以是開放的(比如某一扇牆壁或門板)。through的核心意思是從中穿透或貫穿。

3. via:經由,途徑,從某處(強調通過中間的媒介達成目的)

via一詞似乎用得較少,日常生活中我們經常喜歡用by而不用via,比如要表達“發郵件”或“以郵件的方式”,基本上多數人第一個想到的就是by email,其實這時候用介詞by的話,嚴格說起來是錯誤的用法,正確的做法是用via。*

*Please note that most native speakers would still use “by email."

前面已經分析過by的本義,很明顯by表示“通過某種方式或途徑”的用法(如by train / by means of等)是借用或引申推廣出來的,但by在表示該意思的時候有個前提:主體自己要跟隨工具在一起,這是by的本義(在附件、在旁邊)所決定的,或者說,主體和工具不能發生分離(這是by與via的本質區別)。*

*This is only one possible explanation. However, to native speakers, “by" and “via" are interchangeable in this instance.

而via表達的意思是“經由某個人、某個區域、某個工具達到某個目的”,這裡的“人/區域/工具”都是中間媒介,它們起著傳遞、連接等作用,這時候主體跟工具是註定要分離的。也就說:
(1)send someone a note via email 是指經由email的傳遞給某人發個便條通知某人某事情;
(2)travel from A to C via B 是指從A地出發經由B地前往C地;
(3)broadcast via satellite 是指經由(或通過)衛星進行廣播。

Source: http://hi.baidu.com/heartsoft2008/item/0d5a0c12f56249ce39cb30dd

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by、 through 的區別

1. through 是透過,通過某種途徑
He bought the vase through a dealer (n.).
他透過一個商人買到這花瓶。

2. by + v-ing:藉著做…,達成…目標。重點在陳述達成目標的方法。
He prepares for his finals by reviewing his notes.
他藉著/以復習他的筆記來準備他的期末考。

-He became rich through hard work (n.).
他透過努力工作而致富。

-He became rich by working hard (by v-ing).
他藉著/以努力工作而致富。

by, through, via 詳細解釋: http://tinyurl.com/kcezpd2

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English explanation:

The word “by" is most often used, and can mean the following:
1 near someone or something; at the side of someone or something
-The telephone is by the window.

2 used to show who or what does, creates, or causes something
-He was knocked down by a bus.

3 used for showing how or in what way something is done
-The house is heated by gas.
-to travel by boat/bus/car/plane
to travel by air/land/sea

4. used to show the degree or amount of something
The bullet missed him by two inches. House prices went up by 10%.

more uses: http://oaadonline.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/dictionary/by

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“Through" generally means to go from one end of something/place to the other.

1. from one end or side of something or someone to the other
-The bullet went straight through him.Her knees had gone through
-The sand ran through (= between) my fingers.

2. see, hear, etc. through something to see, hear, etc. something from the other side of an object or a substance
-I couldn’t hear their conversation through the wall.

3. past a barrier, stage, or test
-Go through this gate, and you’ll see the house on your left.

4. (also informal thru) until, and including
We’ll be in New York Tuesday through Friday.

5. by means of; because of
-You can achieve success through hard work/by working hard.

more: http://oaadonline.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/dictionary/through
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“Via" emphasizes by someone or something.

1. through a place
-We flew home via Dubai.
(This use is synonymous with “through/thru."

2. by means of a particular person, system, etc.
I heard about the sale via Jane.The news program came to us via satellite.

(This use is synonymous with “by.")

source: http://oaadonline.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/dictionary/via

So at times, the words are interchangeable, but they all emphasize different things.

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Sources:
1. oaadonline.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com
2. http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-through-and-vs-via/#ixzz2VK59sm4n
3. http://hi.baidu.com/heartsoft2008/item/0d5a0c12f56249ce39cb30dd

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